Sep 1, 2014

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The Pronunciation of the name יהוה (YHWH)

Do We Really Know the Pronunciation?

Study compiled by YermeYah

http://yahushua.net/YAHUWAH/preface.htm

Below is the name of the Almighty written in Hebrew. It seems to be an accepted fact that the correct pronunciation of His name is “Yahweh”. This is apparently so because “most scholars” say that this pronunciation is correct. But what are the facts?

YHWH 

Do We Really Know the Pronunciation?

Proverbs 25:2 It is the honor of the Almighty to conceal a thing; But the honor of kings is to search out a matter.

Biblical Hebrew is a difficult subject for most of us. We therefore usually rely on research done by others, and trust that their conclusions are correct. When something is controversial, like the origin of the heavenly Father’s name, most of us usually accept the conclusion of those scholars who are in the majority, without actually checking out their research for ourselves. Why is this? The reason seems to be that people are intimidated by the technical nature of ancient Hebrew. But, does this need to be the case? Let’s take a look at the facts surrounding the Heavenly Father’s Name…

In Strong’s Concordance, it states that (YHWH), Hebrew 3068, comes from the verb root hyh (hayah), Hebrew 1961 [the verb “to be”]. That is impossible however, since the tetragrammaton would then be spelled *yhyh *(yhyh) instead of YHWH (YHWH). [*third person masculine singular imperfect form]

The Theological Word Book of the Old Testament (word #484) says that hwh (hawah) is the older form of this verb root. In the same article, it says, “An alternative of the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton should be mentioned. Actually, there is a problem with the pronunciation “Yahweh.” It is a strange combination of old and late elements. The first extra-biblical occurrence of the name is in the Moabite Stone of about 850 b.c. At that time, vowel letters were just beginning to be used in Hebrew. If (YHWH) represents a spelling earlier than 900 b.c. (as would seem most likely), the final h (h) would have been pronounced.”

The pronunciation Yahweh indeed comes from the verb root hwh (hawah), but this is not the most ancient form of the verb “to be”. Prior to this, the verb  was spelled hwy (hwy). This root also would be impossible for the tetragrammaton, since it would give a spelling of yhwy (yhwy) instead of (YHWH).

In the “Biblical Archaeology Review” of Sept – Oct ’94, Anson F. Rainey, a professor of Semitic linguistics at Tel Aviv University, confirms this. He states, “A form like yahweh developed from yahwiyu [yhwy]” (editor’s note: Yahwiyu is a hypothetical pronunciation).

It can be seen that Anson Rainey shows, by implication, that the Hebrew spelling of the tetragrammaton was originally different than it is at present. This however, would not be in line with the statement found at Exodus 3:15. Here, says…

“this [YHWH] is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.”

In the book, “A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew” by C.L. Seow, it states that nouns with an “eh” ending originally ended with a (w) or a (y).

Since we do not believe that the name of the Almighty has changed in spelling or pronunciation, we do not believe that his name can have the pronunciation of yahweh. In other words, even though words in the Hebrew language have changed or evolved, we do not believe that this is true of the Heavenly Father’s name. Also, even if it were possible for the spelling of the tetragrammaton to have changed, the pronunciation still would not have originally been yahweh.

Another excerpt from the Theological Word Book of the Old Testament, under #484, says: “The “w” of Yahweh, represents a pre-mosaic pronunciation but the final “eh” represents probably a post-davidic form. In view of these problems it may be best simply to say that (YHWH) does not come from the verb hwh (hawah) (presumably hwy hawaya in its early form) at all. There are many places in the OT where it is now recognized that the parallel of a name and its meaning is not necessarily etymological. For instance, 1st Samuel 1:20 probably does not mean that the name Samuel is derived from the verb‘shama’ “to hear.” Genesis 11:9 does not mean that Babel comes from the verb babel “confusion” but only that the two words sound something alike. Likewise Jacob is said to mean both “heel” (Gen 25:26) and “supplanter” (Gen 27:36). There are many other examples of this device which is to be taken as paronomasia, a play on words, rather than an etymology. Therefore, we may well hold that YHWH does not come from the verb hawa which is cited in the first person ‘ehyeh’ “I will be, “but is an old word of unknown origin which sounded something like what the verb hawa sounded in Moses’ day. In this case we do not know what the pronunciation was; we can only speculate. However, if the word were spelled with four letters in Moses’ day, we would expect it to have had more than two syllables, for at that period there were no vowel letters [written]. All letters were sounded”. [including the final hei.gif (866 bytes) (h), whereas the final “h” in the pronunciation “Yahweh” is silent, meaning that it is used as a vowel]

So what about the pronunciation Yahweh?

In our search for truth, we do not want to leave any stone unturned. The following information is something that needs to be prayerfully considered. 

In Roman mythology, the idol “Jupiter” is the same as the idol “Zeus” in Greek mythology. According to Latin grammar, Jove is the ablative case of Jupiter. In Classical Latin, the pronunciation of Jove (Iove) is Y-A-W-E, with the “j” (i) sounding like a “y”, the “o” being a short sound [like the “o” in “Bob”] the “v” sounds like a “w”, and the “e” sounds like “eh”. These sounds can be verified at the following sites: 

Latin Pronunciation one

Latin Pronunciation two

The Oxford Latin Dictionary, under the heading “Iuppiter” [Jupiter] shows that it originates from dieu = god, pater = father with other Latin forms dies, deus [Greek “Zeus”]. This dictionary spells Jove as 4 vowels “Ioue”, which is reminiscent of Josephus’ claim of the tetragrammaton being 4 vowels [supposedly Iaue].

The following is taken from an article entitled, “Paradox of the Anonymous Name” by Gérard GERTOUX, a Hebrew scholar in France, a specialist of the Tetragram; He has been president of the Association Biblique de Recherche d’Anciens Manuscrits since 1991…

Flavius Josephus, who understood the priesthood of this time very well, made it clear that at the time the Romans attacked the Temple, the Jews called upon the fear-inspiring name of [Elohim] (The Jewish War V:438). He wrote he had no right to reveal this name to his reader (Jewish Antiquities II:275), however he did give information of primary importance on the very pronunciation he wanted to conceal. However, in his work The Jewish War V:235 he stated: «The high priest had his head dressed with a tiara of fine linen embroidered with a purple border, and surrounded by another crown in gold which had in relief the sacred letters; these ones are four vowels» This description is excellent; moreover, it completes the one found in Exodus 28:36-39. However, as we know, there are no vowels in Hebrew, but only consonants. Regrettably, instead of explaining this apparent abnormality, certain commentators (influenced by the form Yahweh) mislead the readers of Josephus by indicating in a note, that this reading was IAUE. Now, it is obvious that the ‘sacred letters’ indicated the Tetragram written in paleo-Hebrew, not Greek. Furthermore, in Hebrew these consonants Y, W, H, do serve as vowels; they are in fact called ‘mothers of reading’ (matres lectionis). The writings of Qumrân show that in the first century Y used as vowel served only to indicate the sounds I and É, W served only for the sounds Ô and U, and a final H served for the sound A. These equivalences may be verified in thousands of words. Additionally, the H was used as a vowel only at the end of words, never within them. So, to read the name YHWH as four vowels would be IHUA that is IEUA, because between two vowels, the H is heard as a slight E. 

The preceding was taken from an article entitled “Paradox of the Anonymous Name”, located at:

http://digilander.libero.it/domingo7/Gertoux.htm 

A translation of the Bible called, “The Word of Yahweh” (first edition), from the Assembly of Yahweh, in Eaton Rapids, Michigan, has the following footnote. It is found on page 1106 and is a footnote for Acts 14:12. It is footnote #81 and is for the word “Jupiter”. It reads as follows:

The Greek text has Zeus here. Some English translations say Jupiter, which is Latin. The Aramaic text says, “Mariah Elaha”! It is interesting to note that “Jove” is another name for Jupiter, and would be written “IOUE” [Latin], which is close to “IAUE” [Greek]. Josephus, a historian of Yahshua’s time, said that the name of our Heavenly Father is written as four vowels: “IAUE”!

So, what we have established thus far, is the fact that the original pronunciation of the Heavenly Father was probably not “yawe or yaway”, whereas the pronunciation of “Jove”, the idol of the Romans, was very likely pronounced “yawe or yaway”. We need to prayerfully ask for wisdom concerning this matter.

What is the Correct Pronunciation?

If the name is not from the verb root hwh (hawah), how should it then be pronounced? It is a fact that anciently, each of the 4 letters of the Tetragrammaton would have been pronounced as consonants, with the final H (hei) being sharply audible (Weingreen, author of, “A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew”).

The question is, what vowels accompanied these 4 consonants? It says in Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar, Page 35, Section 7:1, “The original vowels in Hebrew [understood, not written], as in the other Semitic tongues, are a, i, u. [The vowels] e and o always arise from an obscuring or contraction of these three pure sounds.”

Therefore, since the name YHWH is the most ancient of all names, it seems unlikely that it would contain either of the vowel sounds ‘e’ or ‘o’.

It also shows in biblical Hebrew Grammar books that gutturals (such as h) have a preference for an “ah” vowel before them, and sometimes after them (see: A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew p.280). There is strong evidence for “Yah” at the beginning of . The form YHU (YaHU) is often found at both the beginning and ending of many ancient personal names in Hebrew. The pronunciation YaHuWaH is a definite possibility. The only way to be sure however, will be for Almighty Himself to reveal it. We hope that you will commit this matter to serious prayer.

In conclusion, let us keep in mind, that however we pronounce the tetragrammaton, the most important thing for us to do, is to show that we love YHWH by keeping his commandments: 

Psalm 111:10 The fear of YHWH is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever.

Study compiled by YermeYah

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  1. Please visit this excellent article in full details with this link and page here: http://man-child.com/?p=2749
    Publish the Name of YAHUWAH

  2. WE KNOW FOR SURE THAT YAHUWAH’S NAME IS NOT “THE L-RD”.

    “I” AM ALSO SURE IT IS NOT YAHWEH either…

    Our Creator’s Name means the Self Existent One Who Breaths and a breath consists of three parts NOT TWO; in…out…and the brief pause in the lungs where the oxgen/waste exchange takes place known as the glottal stop.
    I know that His Name makes the sound of a breath; that’s where the oowah part comes in. YaH, the first syllable of His Great Name, of course, means the self-existent One.
    This is the explanation as to why YaHuWaH’s Name has three sylables and not two. Three sylables also comes into play on the One Who Is, Who Was, and Who is to Come.
    I first saw the three sylable concept for YaHuWaH’s Name during the period that I was calling our Father Yah-wah while I was looking at the pronunciation aid in Strong’s Concordance “yeh·ho·vä” I had one of those “AhHa” moments; it’s three sylables and not two!!
    I subsequently learned it isn’t a vav but a waw and from there learned that in our Father’s Name that waw is pronuounced ooW or uW.
    I want this to help you see where that third syllable comes from and why it is necessary to properly pronounce our Father’s Name.
    WHAT FOLLOWS IS A COMPREHENSIVE COLLECTION OF RESEARCH AS TO WHY OUR FATHER’S NAME IS NOT YAHW-A-Y AND WHY TO CALL HIM THAT IS TO PARTICIPATE IN A TRADITION OF MEN:
    The meaning of the name Yahw-e-h
    For one thing, Yahw-e-h is Latin, not Hebrew. It is used in the Roman Catholic Latin Mass, and is the preferred pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton by Popes, Bishops, Cardinals, etc. Unfortunately, many protestant scholars unwittingly follow right in Roman Catholic footsteps. Yahw-e-h is the exact Latin pronunciation of Jove, a variant of Jupiter.
    For another thing, the pronunciation of Yahw-e-h breaks a Hebrew phonological rule that says that it is ungrammatical to have the letter “hey” at the end of a syllable in the middle of a word. If “hey” is in the middle of a word, it must begin a syllable and be followed by a vowel. “Hey” can end a syllable at the end of a word but not at the beginning or middle of a word.
    The Hebrew name “YaHuWaH”, on the other hand, follow Hebrew grammar. It is a trisyllabic (3 syllable) word that is a conglomerate of 3 Hebrew words: (1) HaYah=I Am; (2) Hu=He Who; and (3) HaWah=lives. Hence, YaHuWaH = I Am He Who Lives.
    YaHuWSHuWaH gave the extended definition of the name:
    “I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am alive forever more.”
    -Robert Burden(My friend who put this so eloquently)
    I have invited some of you to this thread to help eliminate saying the names of pagan deities. I invited some of you here because you requested information about how and why Yahw-e-h means Jupiter. I invited others still because you know his name to be YaHuWaH / Yahuah and you could help our brothers and sisters understand the truth about which name is correct by sharing each’s knowledge of Hebrew and how names have evolved.
    I am going to start with some info that I found helpful from this site:
    http://about-Yahweh.tripod.com/
    The shocking things that you never knew about the name Yahw-e-h
    Yahw-e-h is said by a great many bible scholars and church theologians to be the correct pronunciation of the Creator of Israel’s name [YHWH= yode, he, waw, he], but is it? The Roman Catholic Church is and has been the mightiest church the world has ever seen, and in our time having more than one billion followers. It’s history goes right back to Roman Emperor Constantine the great who established Christianity as a legal religion in Roman Empire times. Would you be amazed to know that the chief G-d of the Ancient Romans is still being praised and worshipped unknowingly today in our time by a great multitude of Christians and Jews worldwide? The chief G-d of the Ancient Romans is known to us today as Jupiter, King of the G-ds, but Jupiter has an older more ancient name. In English it is Jove and in classical Latin it is spelled IOVE and pronounced Yahw-e-h. If we check a pronunciation chart of classical Latin in a book called Vox Latina, which is one of the most respected and authoritative books on the pronunciation of classical Latin we find that “I” is pronounced as a double “EE” sound as in the word sheep and the “O” is pronounced as a “AH” sound as in the word father and the “V” is pronounced as a “W” as in the word whale and the “E” is pronounced as “EH” as in the word pet. If we put these sounds together EE + AH + W + EH it pronounces YAHW-E-H. The EE sound + AH sound = YAH and W + EH = WEH, put the two sounds together and it pronounces YAHW-E-H spelled IOVE in classical Latin which is the King of all the Roman G-ds. THE ANCIENT ROMANS WORSHIPED AND PRAISED THE NAME OF YAHW-E-H. One thing is for sure, YHWH is a Hebrew deity, and IS NOT a Roman deity named YAHW-E-H = IOVE / JUPITER.
    HERE IS A LIST OF REFFERENCES FOR CLASSICAL LATIN PRONUNCIATION CHARTS ON THE NET. 1. http://www.yahushua.net/VoxLatina.htm
    2. http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=classical%20Latin %20pronunciation
    3. http://www.shrinesf.org/latin.htm
    Vox Latina
    {‘English’ refers throughout to the standard or received pronunciation of southern British English
    A Summary of Classical Latin Pronunciation (from Vox Latina)
    a short As first a in Italian amare (as vowel of English cup: NB.not as cap)
    a long As second a in Italian amare ( as a in English father)
    ae As in English high
    au As in English how
    b (1) As English b
    (2) Before t or s: as English p
    c As English or (better) French `hard’ c, or English k
    ch As c in emphatic pronunciation of English cat
    d As English or French d
    e short As in English pet
    e long As in French gai or German Beet
    ei As in English day
    eu pronounced as a quick slide from e to y (see below).
    f As English f
    g (1) As English `hard’ g
    (2) gn: as ngn in English hangnail
    h As English h
    i short As in English dip
    i long As in English deep
    i consonant(1) As English y
    (2) Between vowels:=yy]
    k As English k
    l (1) Before vowels: as l in English lay
    (2) Before consonants and at end of word: as l in English field or hill
    m (1) At the beginning or in middle of word: as English m
    (2) At the end of word (after a vowel): as in French nasalized vowel
    n (1) As n in English net
    (2) Before c, g, qu: as n in anger
    (3) Before fricatives (f, s) somewhat assimilated
    o As in English pot
    o long As in French beau or German Boot
    oe As in English boy
    p As English or (better) French p
    ph As p in emphatic pronunciation of English pig
    qu As qu in English quick
    r As in Scottish `rolled’ r
    s As in English sing or ss in lesson (N.B.never as in English roses)
    t As English or French t
    th As t in emphatic pronunciation of English terrible
    u short As in English put
    u long As in English fool u=consonant As English w
    ui see pp.62f.
    x As English x in box
    y As in French u or German u (umlaut)
    z (1) As English z
    (2) Between vowels: = [zz]
    (3) Perhaps in rendering some Greek words: = [zd]
    Vox Latina
    A GUIDE TO THE PRONUNCIATION CLASSICAL LATIN
    By W. SIDNEY ALLEN, professor of comparative Philology in the University of Cambridge/ CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1965
    HERE IS A LIST OF WEB SITES TO CHECK OUT LATIN PRONUNCIATION ON THE NET.
    1. http://www.YaHuWSHuWaH.net/VoxLatina.htm
    2. http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=classical%20Latin %20pronunciation
    3. http://www.shrinesf.org/latin.htm
    CLASSICAL LATIN PRONUNCIATIONS spelled out for you
    TO CHECK THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR PRONUNCIATION in classical Latin REFER BACK TO VOX LATINA GUIDE TO THE PRONUNCIATION CLASSICAL LATIN
    V= CONSONANT PRONOUNCED AS;W
    ENGLISH CLASSICAL LATIN SOUNDS OUT
    JOVE iove/ ee-ah-w-eh YAHW-E-H
    JOVI iovi/ee-ah-w-ee YAHWEE
    JOVIAL iovi-al/ee-ah-w-ee- -ah-L YAHWEE-AL
    JOVEAL iove-al/ee-ah-w-eh –ah-L YAHW-E-H-AL
    JOVIS iovis/ee-ah-w-ee -s YAHWEES
    DJOVIS djovis/d-ee-ah-w-ee-s DYAHWEES
    V= VOWEL PRONOUNCED AS; OO
    ENGLISH CLASSICAL LATIN SOUNDS OUT
    V= CONSONANT PRONOUNCED AS;W
    ENGLISH CLASSICAL LATIN SOUNDS OUT
    JOVE iove/ ee-ah-w-eh YAHW-E-H
    JOVI iovi/ee-ah-w-ee YAHWEE
    JOVIAL iovi-al/ee-ah-w-ee- -ah-L YAHWEE-AL
    JOVEAL iove-al/ee-ah-w-eh –ah-L YAHW-E-H-AL
    JOVIS iovis/ee-ah-w-ee -s YAHWEES
    DJOVIS djovis/d-ee-ah-w-ee-s DYAHWEES
    V= VOWEL PRONOUNCED AS; OO
    ENGLISH CLASSICAL LATIN SOUNDS OUT
    JOVE iove/ ee-ah-oo-eh YAHUWEH
    JOVI iovi/ee-ah-oo-ee YAHUWEE
    JOVIAL iovi-al/ee-ah-oo-ee- -ah-L YAHWEE-AL
    JOVEAL iove-al/ee-ah-oo-eh –ah-L YAHUWEH-AL
    JOVIS iovis/ee-ah-oo-ee-s YAHUWEES
    DJOVIS diovis/ee-ah-oo-ee-s DYAHUWEES
    Vulgate Acts14:12 ; sacerdos quoque Iovis qui erat ante civitatem tauros et coronas ante ianuas adferens cum populis volebat sacrificare. Jerome’s Latin Vulgate / Latin Bible
    Jupiter (a father that helps ), the Greek Zeus. The Olympian Zeus was the national G-d of the Hellenic race, as well as the supreme ruler of the heathen world, and as such formed the true opposite to Jehovah. Jupiter or Zeus is mentioned in two passages of the New Testament, on the occasion of St. Paul’s visit to Lystra, (Acts 14:12,13) where the _expression “Jupiter, which was before their city,” means that his temple was outside the city. Also in (Acts 19:35) Smith’s Bible Dictionary
    Jupiter, n. [L. Juppiter or Jupiter from L. Jovis, Jove, and pater, father.] 1. in Roman mythology the G-d ruling over all other G-ds and all people: identified with the Greek Zeus. 2. the largest planet in the solar system and the fifth in distance from the sun: diameter, 87,000 mi.; period of revolution, 11.86 yrs.; symbol, 4 . Webster’s new 20th Century Dictionary Unabridged Second Edition. Pg. 992
    Jupiter Ju”pi*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Jovis pater. See Jove.] 1. (Rom. Myth.) The supreme deity, king of G-ds and men, and reputed to be the son of Saturn and Rhea; Jove. He corresponds to the Greek Zeus. 2. (Astron.) One of the planets, being the brightest except Venus, and the largest of them all, its mean diameter being about 85,000 miles. It revolves about the sun in 4,332.6 days, at a mean distance of 5.2028 from the sun, the earth’s mean distance being taken as unity. Jupiter’s beard. (Bot.) (a) A South European herb, with cymes of small red blossoms (Centranthus ruber). (b) The houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum); — so called from its massive inflorescence, like the sculptured beard of Jove. Prior. (c) the cloverlike Anthyllis Barba-Jovis. — Jupiter’s staff (Bot.), the common mullein; — so called from its long, rigid spike of yellow blossoms. Websters dictionary 1913 page 806
    Zeus and Foreign G-ds From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Zeus was equivalent to the roman G-d jupiter (from Jovis Pater or “Father Jove”)
    Jove Jove (n), n. [L. Jupiter, gen. Jovis, OL. Jovis, nom. & gen. for Djovis; akin to E. Tuesday. See tuesday, and cf. Jupiter 1. The chief divinity of the ancient Romans; Jupiter 2. (Astron.) The planet Jupiter. [R.] Pope. 3. (Alchemy) The metal tin. Bird of Jove, the eagle. Webster Dictionary, 1913 (Page: 803)
    Dias IN ACTS 14;13 (Greek ??a?) D-EE-AH-S/ DYAHS, Dias (Greek ??a?)
    Compare sound’s of(Greek ??a?) dias/dyahs to Latin Djovis/dyahwes, we can clearly see that dyahwes/djovis is a longer form of dyahs/dias or that dyahs/dias is a shorter form of dyahwes/djovis.
    IN ACTS 14:13 (Greek ??a?) D-EE-AH-S/ DYAHS, Dias (Greek ??a?) THE (O) IN IOVE/JOVE IS PRONOUNCED AS THE {AH / SOUND} as can be seen in its relationship to its Greek counter part ??a? /dyahs. THIS MEANS HOW EVER YOU CHOOSE TO PRONOUNCE I-O-V-E IT STILL PRONOUNCES YAHW-E-H/YAH-OO-EH, PEOPLE SAY WE DON’T TRULY KNOW HOW TO PRONOUNCE I-O-V-E, BUT WE CAN CLEARLY PROVE THEIR ALLEGATIONS TO BE FALSE AND NOT ACCORDING TO THE TRUTH AND THE FACTS.
    The Word of Yahw-e-h” (first edition), the Assembly of Yahw-e-h, Eaton Rapids, Michigan, has the following footnote. It is found on page 1106 and is a footnote for Acts 14:12. Footnote #81 for the word “Jupiter”. ; “The Greek text has Zeus here. Some” English translations say Jupiter, which is Latin. The Aramaic text says, Mariah Elaha”! It is interesting to note that “Jove” is another name for Jupiter, and would be written “IOUE” Latin.
    IT AMAZES ME WHAT SOME PEOPLE REFER TO AS INTERESTING TO NOTE
    References about the abomination of desolation; JUPITER/JOVE=YAHW-E-H
    *Please note there are many references to show who exactly the abomination of desolation is, so if it becomes too long for you just read the highlighted areas in yellow.
    In the temple at Jerusalem on the altar of burnt offering an altar to Jupiter was erected, “the abomination that makes desolate” (Daniel 11:31), and a swine was sacrificed upon it (see ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION). The immoral practices associated with heathen worship in those days established themselves in the temple. Cheyne, article “Bacchus,” EB; Kent, History of the Jewish People, I, 328-29; Josephus, Ant, XII, v, 4. International, Standard Bible Encyclopedia
    15. But some said, He casts out devils by Beelzebub – These he answers, ver.
    17. Others, to try whether it were so or no, sought a sign from heaven. These he reproves in ver. 29 and following verses. Beelzebub signifies the Lord of flies, a title which the heathens gave to Jupiter whom they accounted the chief of their G-ds, and yet supposed him to be employed in driving away flies from their temple and sacrifices. The Philistines worshipped a deity under this name, as the G-d of Ekron: from hence the Jews took the name, and applied it to the chief of the devils.
    Mark iii, 22. WESLEY’S NOTES –Luke 11
    31. And arms – Not only of his own army, but many Jews. The sanctuary- Even the h-ly of h-lies. The abomination – The statue of Jupiter placed in the temple.
    WESLEY’S NOTES – DANIEL 11
    25. By peace – Under color of kindness. Against the prince of princes – He fought against G-d, affronting G-d’s laws, profaning G-d’s worship, and temple, and setting up the image and worship of Jupiter there. Without hand- by a disease whereof he died, 1Macc vi, 8. WESLEY’S NOTES – DANIEL 8
    In 70 Vespasian’s supporters called him back to Rome to become emperor. Titus finished the final siege of Jerusalem, and then erected an idol on the devastated temple altar. Josephus claims 1.1 million Jews were killed and 97,000 enslaved in the war and siege ( (Josephus,Wars, VI, ix, 3).
    ABOUT Daniel’s prophecy, Kitto says, “This appears to have been a prediction of the pollution of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, who caused an idolatrous altar to be built on the altar of burnt offerings, whereon unclean things were offered to Jupiter Olympius, to whom the temple itself was dedicated”
    (Encyclopedia of Biblical Literature, John Kitto, Vol. 1, p. 22). Then Antiochus dispatched troops to Judea in 167 B.C., destroying the temple and its sanctuary. (However, the basic structure of the temple remained intact and was later restored.) This act did away with the daily sacrifice. Antiochus then set up an image directly on the alter of the temple-thus defiling and making it desolate. The image he set up was that of Jupiter Olympus. This is the same image that the historic counterfeit church has pawned off to the world as the image of Jesus Christ. As if this were not enough, Antiochus further alienated the Jews by offering swine’s blood upon the alter. A Manual of Ancient History, Rawlinson p. 255.
    The phrase at the end of the verse reads, “and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” The context of the final word “desolate” refers to the perpetrator, or “causer of desolation” (Jamison, Fausett and Brown Commentary, vol. 1, p. 757), hence, the “Desolator”-Satan. To paraphrase: “the abomination shall defile the sanctuary until the end when the appointed doom or judgment falls upon Satan.”
    There was another later and more specific abomination of the H-ly place accomplished by emperor Hadrian, who with “…studied insult to the Jews, set up the figure of a boar over the Bethlehem gate of the city which rose upon the site and ruins of Jerusalem (Euseb. Chron., 1, i. p. 45, ed. 1658), but he erected a temple to Jupiter upon the site of the Jewish temple and caused an image of himself to be set up in the part which answered to the most H-ly place” (Euseb. Chron, Vol. 1, p. 23,ed 1658).
    Not content merely to stop the sacrifices, Antiochus desecrated the temple. “A bearded image of the pagan deity (Jupiter Olympus) … (was) set up upon the Temple altar. The Jews popularly spoke of this as ‘the abomination of desolation.’ Greek soldiers and their paramours performed licentious heathen rites in the very Temple courts. Swine were sacrificed on the altar” (Charles Pfeiffer, Between the Testaments, 1974, p. 81).
    Daniel (11:31), in that section of his prophecies which is generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, “And they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be erected on the altar of burnt offering, on which sacrifices were offered to Jupiter Olympus.
    (Compare. 1 Maccabees. 1:57
    Daniel (11:31), in that section of his prophecies which is generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, “And they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be erected on the altar of burnt offering, on which sacrifices were offered to Jupiter Olympus. (Comp. 1 Macc. 1:57).
    This was the abomination of the desolation of Jerusalem. The same language is employed in Dan. 9:27 (comp Matt. 24:15), where the reference is probably to the image-crowned standards which the Romans set up at the east gate of the temple (A.D. 70), and to which they paid idolatrous honors. “Almost the entire religion of the Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing by the ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other G-ds.” These ensigns were an “abomination” to the Jews, the “abomination of desolation.” This word is also used symbolically of sin in general (Isa. 66:3); an idol (44:19); the ceremonies of the apostate Church of Rome (Rev. 17:4); a detestable act (Ezek. 22:11).
    EASTONS’S 1897 BIBLE DICTONARY
    THE G-D OF FORCES: “But in his estate shall he honor the G-d of forces” Other versions read, “But in their place shall he shall honor the G-d of fortresses,” “But instead he will honor a G-d of fortresses,” and “He shall honor a G-d of fortresses instead of these.” NRVS The words “his estate” has a twofold meaning. From the earthly point of view, they refer to the position his father’s G-ds occupied. Instead of those Syrian G-ds, he honored “the G-d of forces,” or “the G-d of fortresses.” From heaven’s point of view, it refers to the Almighty G-d Himself. That is, this king would, in his own thought, assign the position, which G-d alone occupies, to another G-d – “the G-d of forces.” In a place identified with the G-d of heaven, Antiochus would give honor to “the G-d of forces.” This false G-d was Jupiter (the Latin form of the Greek “Zeus”). He was supposed to represent the “fertilizing power of the heavens.”
    McCLINTOK AND STRONG
    The name “Jupiter” means “G-d of bulwarks,” or fortresses. Antiochus Epiphanes introduced this G-d to the Syrians, who never before honored it. He erected a temple to this G-d in his capital city of Antioch, adorning it with all manner of gold, silver, and precious stones. However, the temple was never completed. The real transgression of this wicked king took place when he dared to erect an idol altar to this G-d upon the very altar of G-d – the altar of burnt offerings. “Antiochus, after compelling the Jews to call the Temple of Jerusalem THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER OLYMPIUS, built an idol altar upon the altar of G-d. Upon this altar swine were offered every day, and the broth of their flesh was sprinkled about the Temple.” McCLINTOK AND STRONG
    [He Shall Honor] “And a G-d whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” This to refer to Antiochus’ attempt to build a temple to Jupiter, adorned with all manner of precious metals, stones, and the likes. In his renovation of Antioch, the following is said of this king. “Even before he had begun his reign he had contributed to the building of the temple of Zeus (Latin form of Jupiter) in Athens and to the adornment of the theatre. He enlarged Antioch on the Orontes by adding a section to the city (named Epiphania after him). There he built an aqueduct, a council hall, a marketplace, and a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus. .”
    BRITANNICA 2003
    The Romans prohibited Jews from even entering the city of Jerusalem after the city’s destruction in A.D. 70. The Jewish revolt of A.D. 132-135 failed and Jews was unable to wrest the site of Jerusalem from the Romans. The Romans rebuilt and fortified the former capital of Judaism, naming it Colonia Aelia Capitolina, which they considered a Roman colony. A heathen temple dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus was built atop Mt. Moriah where the Jewish Temple had stood. The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary.
    On the altar of burnt-offerings; the first victim was sacrificed to Jupiter Olympius, on the 25th of the same month.” McCLINTOK AND STRONG
    The real transgression of this wicked king took place when he dared to erect an idol altar to this G-d upon the very altar of G-d – the altar of burnt offerings. “Antiochus, after compelling the Jews to call the Temple of Jerusalem THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER OLYMPIUS, built an idol altar upon the altar of G-d. Upon this altar swine were offered every day, and the broth of their flesh was sprinkled about the Temple.”
    McCLINTOK AND STRONG
    “But he also adorned Delos with inscribed altars & an abundance of statues. And at Antioch (he erected) a magnificent temple to Capitoline Jove [=Jupiter], not only with a ceiling lined with gold but with walls completely covered with gilded panels. And he did not complete many other project’s promised to other places, since his reign was very brief.”
    INTO HIS OWN, by MAHLON H SMITH, 1999
    Mauzzim: (fortresses). The marginal note to the Authorized Version of Da 11:38 “the G-d of forces,” gives as the equivalent of the last word “Mauzzim, or G-ds protectors, or munitions.” There can be little doubt that mauzzim is to be taken in its literal sense of “fortresses,” just as in Da 11:19,39 “the G-d of fortresses” being then the deity who presided over strongholds. The opinion of Gesenius is that “the G-d of fortresses” was Jupiter Capitolinus, for whom Antiochus built a temple at Antioch. Liv. xli. 20. Smith’s Bible Dictionary
    (6.) He cast down the place of his sanctuary. He did not burn and demolish the temple, but he cast it down, when he profaned it, made it the temple of Jupiter Olympius, and set up his image in it. He also cast down the truth to the ground, trampled upon the book of the law, that word of truth, tore it, and burnt it, and did what he could to destroy it quite, that it might be lost and forgotten for ever. These were the projects of that wicked prince.
    . [3.] The question itself that was asked: “How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice? How long shall the prohibition of it continue? How long shall the pleasant land be made unpleasant by that severe interdict? How long shall the transgression of desolation (the image of Jupiter), that great transgression which makes all our sacred things desolate, how long shall that stand in the temple? How long shall the sanctuary and the host, the H-ly place and the H-ly persons that minister in it, be trodden under foot by the oppressor?’’
    MATTHEW HENRY, COMMENTARY ON DANIEL 8.
    This indeterminate period, which has now spanned more than nineteen hundred years comes between the sixty-ninth week of years and the seventieth of the prophecy. The seventieth week, a week of seven years, is yet to be fulfilled for Israel. As you read of this you will see that this is what the book of Revelation and other prophetic passages call “the great tribulation,” the time of Jacob’s trouble. It lies ahead; it has been broken off from the other sixty-nine and is yet to be fulfilled.
    RAY STEDMAN, COMMENTARY ON DANIEL 9.
    DO YAHWEHISTS INVOKE THE NAME OF THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION ; IOVE/YAHW-E-H/JUPITER?
    Ju”pi*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Jovis pater. See Jove.] 1. (Rom. Myth.) The supreme deity, king of G-ds and men, and reputed to be the son of Saturn and Rhea; Jove. He corresponds to the Greek Zeus. Page 806 websters dictionary 1913
    Jove (?), n. [L. Jupiter, gen. Jovis, OL. Jovis, nom. & gen. for Djovis; akin to E. Tuesday. See Tuesday, and cf. Jupiter.] 1. The chief divinity of the ancient Romans; Jupiter. 2. (Astron.) The planet Jupiter. [R.] Pope. 3. (Alchemy) The metal tin. Bird of Jove, the eagle. Jove (Page: 803) websters dictionary 1913.
    The references below show that the ROMANS were worshiping JOVE/ YAHW-E-H/ JUPITER before 650 BCE / 509 BCE / 295 BCE.
    The reason for proving this now will become clearly apparent later in this study, when showing that the Romans did not adopt IOVE/YAHW-E-H from the Hebrews.
    Capitoline Cap`i*to”li*an (?), Cap”i*to*line (?), a. [L. capitolinus: cf. F. capitolin.] Of or pertaining to the Capitol in Rome. “Capitolian Jove.” Capitoline games Antiq., annual games instituted at Rome by Camillus, in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus, on account of the preservation of the Capitol from the Gauls; when reinstituted by Domitian, arter a period of neglect, they were held every fifth year. WEBSTERS DICTIONARY 1913
    The numbers and architecture of Roman temples reflect the city’s receptivity to all the religions of the world. The oldest Roman temples reflect Etruscan temples, like the great temple on the Capitoline Hill, dedicated in 509 BC to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, the Capitoline Triad. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Capitol, highest of the seven hills of ancient Rome, historic and religious center of the city. The great temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, on its southern summit, was dedicated in 509 B.C.; it was foremost among the temples and altars of Rome. Capitoline Hill. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.
    13 IDIBUS APRILIS NP: Ludi Cereri Temples of Jupiter Victor (295 BCE) and Jupiter Libertas (246 BCE). “Jupiter, if it is greatly pleasing to you, that we, rather than Mezentium, should give offerings to you, accordingly may you make us victorious” (Cato Origines fr. I.12).
    5 III Non Quint NP: POPLIFUGIA ‘scattering of the people’ at the disappearance of Romulus. Feriae Jovi: “Almighty Jupiter, who both engendered and fathered rulers, things, and G-ds, G-d of G-ds, You who are both the One and All” (Valerius Soranus FPL fr.4)
    Ancient History Sourcebook: Livy: The Roman Way of Declaring, War, c. 650 BCE,History of Rome,I.32:” says: Hear, O Jupiter, and hear ye lands [i.e., of such and such a nation], let Justice hear! I am a public messenger of the Roman people. Justly and religiously I come, and let my words bear credit! Then he makes his demands, and follows with a solemn appeal to Jupiter. If I demand unjustly and impiously that these men and goods [in question] be given to me, the herald of the Roman people, then suffer me never to enjoy again my native country!”
    If the persons he demands are not surrendered after thirty days, he declares war, thus: Hear, O Jupiter and you too, Juno—Romulus also, and all the celestial, terrestrial, and infernal G-ds! Give us ear! I call you to witness that this nation is unjust, and has acted contrary to right. And as for us, we will consult thereon with our elders in our homeland, as to how we may obtain our rights. Source: From: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 Vols. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1912-13), Vol. II: Rome and the West, pp. 7-9. Scanned by: J. S. Arkenberg, Dept. of History, Cal. State Fullerton. Prof. Arkenberg has modernized the text.
    JOVE /IOVE/JUPITER PRE –DATE 5O9, BCE/ PRE –DATE 650,BCE
    Inserting the vowels of IABE into the original Hebrew consonant text (Y-H-W-H )
    The noted scholar Heinisch points to the weakness of the evidence that Y-H-W-H , i.e. “Yahw-e-h” is the pronunciation of ???? He writes, “The pronunciation of the divine name “Yahw-e-h” REST UPON SAMARITAN TRADITION as given by Theodoret. (Theology of the old testament, pg.39 .
    Inserting the vowels of IABE into the original Hebrew consonant text (Y-H-W-H, we obtain the form YAHW-E-H, which has been generally accepted by modern scholars as the true pronunciation of the Divine name.
    G.H. Parke-Taylor’s book Yahw-e-h: The Divine Name In The Bible, p. 79, we read that Genebrardus, in 1567, was the first to suggest the pronunciation, Jahve, largely on the strength of Theodoret’s assertion that the Samaritans used the pronunciation Iabe, subsequent to the time when pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton was stopped by the Jews.
    George W. Buchanan, “Some Unfinished Business With the Dead Sea Scrolls,” RevQ 13.49-52 (1988), 416, points out that there was only one group in antiquity to pronounce the divine name similar to the popular form, “Yahw-e-h.” And this only because Theodoret (fifth-century CE Antiochene theologian) claimed that the Samaritans pronounced the divine name as Iabe.
    JOSEPHUS’ WRITINGS – BOOK 12, CH. 5
    5. When the Samaritans saw the Jews under these sufferings, they no longer confessed that they were of their kindred, nor that the temple on Mount Gerizzim belonged to Almighty G-d. This was according to their nature, as we have already shown. And they now said that they were a colony of Medes and Persians; and indeed they were a colony of theirs. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: “To king Antiochus the G-d, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. (18) And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerizim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. Now, upon the just treatment of these wicked Jews, those that manage their affairs, supposing that we were of kin to them, and practiced as they do, make us liable to the same accusations, although we be originally Sidonians, as is evident from the public records. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee.” When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: “King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom. JOSEPHUS’ WRITINGS – BOOK 12, CH. 5
    The universal peril led the Samaritans, eager for safety, to repudiate all connection and kinship with the Jews. They sent ambassadors and an epistle asking to be recognized as belonging to the Greek party, and to have their temple on Mt. Gerizim named “The Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” The request was granted. This was evidently the final breach between the two races indicated in John 4:9, “For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.” 2003 ANTIOCHIANS Bible Study – International Standard Bible Encyclopedia – ANTIOCHIANS DefinitionAnt, XII, v; Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, III, section 48; Riggs, History of the Jewish People, chapter ii, sections 15-26 (Kent’s Hist. Series, IV). Dwight M. Pratt
    Inserting the vowels of IABE into the original Hebrew consonant text (Y-H-W-H, we obtain the form YAHW-E-H, this makes 100% sense since the Samaritans worship the deity JUPITER/IOVE, who is THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION, which is I-O-V-E =YAHW-E-H, who is the Roman deity JUPITER.
    Truthfully Theodoret rightly said that the Samaritan’s pronounced the divine name as IABE but what is even more amazing is that Theodoret specifically said that the Jews had a completely different pronunciation for the Creator’s name YHWH, which was written down by Theodoret as a transliteration in classical Greek, with the three greek letter’s; (Iota,Alpha,Omega). See; (Quaestiones in I Paral. cap. IX) He wrote “the word Nethinim means in Hebrew ‘gift of Iaô ’, that is the G-d who is”.
    IN ACTS 14:13 (Greek ??a?) D-EE-AH-S/ DYAHS, Dias (Greek ??a?) THE (O) IN IOVE/JOVE IS PRONOUNCED AS THE {AH / SOUND} as can be seen in its relationship to its Greek counter part ??a? /dyahs. THIS MEANS HOW EVER YOU CHOOSE TO PRONOUNCE I-O-V-E IT STILL PRONOUNCES YAHW-E-H/YAH-OO-EH, PEOPLE SAY WE DON’T TRULY KNOW HOW TO PRONOUNCE I-O-V-E, BUT WE CAN CLEARLY PROVE THEIR ALLEGATIONS TO BE FALSE AND NOT ACCORDING TO THE TRUTH AND THE FACTS. Inserting the vowels of IABE into the original Hebrew consonant text (Y-H-W-H, we obtain the form YAHW-E-H, this makes 100% sense since the Samaritans worship the deity JUPITER/IOVE, who is THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION, which is I-O-V-E =YAHW-E-H, who is the Roman deity JUPITER.
    There are some yahwehist preachers that say and try to claim that the ROMANS AND THE ENTIRE ROMAN EMPIRE adopted the name of Yahw-e-h from the HEBREWS/JEWS. They say Yahw-e-h is a Hebrew name that the Romans adopted, and it’s that simple! They don’t want to talk to you anymore and quickly hang up the phone on you. These yahwehists cannot and do not provide any evidence or facts or scripture to support their position that Yahw-e-h is a Hebrew name that the Romans adopted}. IT IS A FACT THAT; The ROMAN TEMPLE of JOVE CAPITALINUS DATES BACK TO 509, BCE and the worship of Jupiter/jove/Yahw-e-h pre dates 650 bce. See page above.
    I say to them very boldly lets see the scriptures and the facts and the evidence and the proofs of: When? Where? How? Why? To prove true their Grand fantasy name adoption theory, that the ROMANS ADOPTED THE NAME YAHW-E-H FROM THE HEBREWS/JEWS.{SEE PAGE ON JOVE/JUPITER, HISTORY DATES.650 bce, 509 bce}
    We can see from this Jewish historian Josephus in his writing that Jupiter /Jove /Yahw-e-h is certainly not the true name of (YHWH/yod he waw he). Observe closely what is said; He also compelled them to forsake the worship, which they paid their own G-d. Why would he this wicked ruler compel the Jews to forsake their own G-d if it was the exact same name as for his own G-d Jove/IOVE =Yahw-e-h???????
    However, in that citadel dwelt the impious and wicked part of the [Jewish] multitude, from whom it proved that the citizens suffered many and sore calamities. And when the king had built an idol altar upon G-d’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own G-d, and to adore those whom he took to be G-ds; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day. He also commanded them not to circumcise their sons, and threatened to punish any that should be found to have transgressed his injunction. He also appointed overseers, who should compel them to do what he commanded. And indeed many Jews were there who complied with the king’s commands, either voluntarily, or out of fear of the penalty that was denounced. But the best men, and those of the noblest souls, did not regard him, but did pay a greater respect to the customs of their country than concern as to the punishment which he threatened to the disobedient; on which account they every day underwent great miseries and bitter torments; for they were whipped with rods, and their bodies were torn to pieces, and were crucified, while they were still alive, and breathed. They also strangled those women and their sons whom they had circumcised, as the king had appointed, hanging their sons about their necks as they were upon the crosses. And if there were any sacred book of the law found, it was destroyed, and those with whom they were found miserably perished also. JOSEPHUS’ WRITINGS – BOOK 12, CH.5
    ARE NOT YAHWEHISTS MODERN SAMMARITIANS AND ROMANS BECAUSE THEY WORSHIP THE DEITY OF THE ANCIENT ROMANS AND SAMMARITIANS?
    The noted scholar Heinisch points to the weakness of the evidence that iabe, i.e “Yahw-e-h” is the pronunciation of ???? He writes, “The pronunciation of the divine name “Yahw-e-h” REST UPON SAMARITAN TRADITION as given by Theodoret. Theology of the old testament, pg.39 .
    The pronunciation Yahw-e-h is indicated by transliteration of the name into Greek in early Christian literature, in the form iaoue (Clement of Alexandria) or iabe (Theodoret;” Eerdman’s Bible Dictionary, 1979 page 478.
    “Judging from Greek transcriptions of the sacred name ( iabe, iaouai );YHWH ought to be pronounced Yahw-e-h”. THE NEW CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOLUME 14,page 1065.
    “The pronunciation of yhwh as Yahw-e-h is a scholarly guess”. (THE ANCOR BIBLE DICTIONARY vol 6 pg. 1011)
    For the rest of the info go to:
    http://about-Yahweh.tripod.com/

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