Post By

YAH's Followers

Browsing

quotation from her article posted below:: ”


Each month numbered thirty days, and at the end of the third month in each quarter—which always ended on a Tuesday[JL1] —an additional day was added, making for a month of thirty-one days.  This additional day, the ninety-first in the quarter, was called “yom pagu`a,” (“the defective day”).  Once every seven years, during the sabbatical year, an extra week appears to have been added in order to make up the difference between the 364 days of their calendar and the solar year of 365¼ days, a period well known in antiquity and referred to in 2 Enoch.  They may have added two weeks once every twenty-eight years in order to make up the missing quarter day.  They selected a year of 364 days rather than of 365¼ days, as astronomical calculation of the solar year would require, because the priestly calendar was one of fixed Sabbaths, calculated in advance and based on a symmetric division of the days of the year and its seasons into equal seven-day periods.  The symmetrical yearly calendar of identical weekly and quarterly periods comprised fifty-two weeks, as detailed in the Psalms Scroll found in Qumran Cave 11, and was divided into four equal, 91-day periods, as detailed in Enoch and Jubilees.  On this fixed, mathematically calculated calendar, which provided the underpinnings for the priestly sacred service and was anchored in oath and covenant, each Sabbath and each of the seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH had a fixed day, a fixed date, and a fixed interval between it and the appointed time that preceded it.  The three pilgrimage festivals fell on the fifteenth of the first, third, and seventh months.  Thus, the festival of Shavuot—the appointed time of the first fruits of the wheat harvest, set by Scripture at seven weeks following the time of the barley harvest—invariably fell on Sunday, the fifteenth of the third month, seven weeks after the time of the waving of the sheaf.  The latter, according to the priestly calendar, invariably fell on the Sunday following the conclusion of the Passover festival, the twenty-sixth of the first month.  This 364-day, 52-week calendar is referred to at various points in the Dead Sea Scrolls.  It begins with the month of Abib (that is, Nisan) and, as noted, comprises four 91-day seasons (Jub. 6:23-29); they are known as the season of early harvest, the summer time, the season of sowing, and the season of grass (Comm. Rule, 1QS X:7).  The calendar is discussed in various traditions, beginning with the books of Jubilees and Enoch, continuing through the Qumran Psalms Scroll and the calendar at the beginning of MMT, and culminating in the Temple Scroll, the Priestly Courses Scroll and the Qumran version of the flood story, which is an account of the determination of the yearly calendar.  All of the Zadokite priestly traditions are identical in this regard, emphasizing the fixed 364-day year divided into fifty-two weeks that were allocated to the twenty-four priestly courses (1 Chr. Ch. 24) who served in the Temple for one week at a time on a fixed rotation and after whom the weeks of the festivals were named.  The Qumran Priestly Courses Scroll enumerates the cycles of songs sung by the priests over a period of hundreds of years.  During the six-year period between sabbatical years, each of the twenty-four courses of priests was on duty thirteen times for a week at a time and followed the song cycles listed in the Priestly Courses Scroll.  The priestly courses—the groups who maintained the rotation in the sanctuary—were endowed with responsibility for the eternal priestly covenant; they observed the continuous annual cycle of fifty-two Sabbaths and seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH along with the seven-year cycle of sabbatical years and jubilees.  These cycles were the essence of the eternal testimony to the sacred cycles of respite (“the appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, holy convocations”) that maintain the covenant; accordingly, the festival of Shavuot, which attests to them, is called “the day of testimony.”  The cycles embodied the essence of the oath taken at Sinai, the oath that the festival of Shavuot was meant to maintain and renew annually.  Once each of the priestly courses had served thirteen times over six years, the seventh year was declared to be a sabbatical year in which work ceased, just as the seven days of the week concluded with the seventh day, the Sabbath, on which all labor was forbidden.  After seven seven-year cycles—forty-nine years—a jubilee year was declared. The twenty-four priestly courses were a living liturgical calendar, for their rotation into and out of service every Sunday marked the start of the new week and their rotation after fifty-two weeks marked the start of a new year.  The completion of thirteen cycles of service by each of the twenty-four courses marked the time for the sabbatical year, and the completion of ninety-one cycles of service marked the time for the jubilee.  The rigorous observance of these eternal and sacred seven-based cycles of respite from labor—fixed and calculated in advance as cycles of rest, sabbatical year, equality, freedom, and liberty, and made known from the heavens through the oath and covenant at Sinai—were regarded by the Zadokite priests as the essence of the oath and covenant maintained by the festival of Shavuot and written in the tablets of the covenant.”

FROM THE COVENANT OF THE RAINBOW TO THE COVENANT AT SINAI; FROM THE PILGRIMAGE TO THE TEMPLE TO THE VISION OF THE CHARIOT, FROM THE BERACHAH OF THE FIRST FRUITS TO THE PRIESTLY  BERACHAH, AND FROM THE TIQQUN LEIL  SHAVU`OT TO THE REVELATION OF THE SHEKHINAH

By RACHEL ELIOR[1]

shavuot_FROM_THE_COVENANT_OF_THE_RAINBOW.pdf

                                                                                    For David Grossman

“One must rejoice on this festival in particular, for it is the day on which we acquired the crown of Torah….”  Shelah, Masekhet shavu`ot, shenei luhot ha-berit, p. 7.

“If all their experiences are not here, certainly a memorial to their lives is here. And it is fitting and proper that we afford them a name and a vestige in Hebrew script and in the kadosh tongue.” S. Y. Agnon, Ha-esh ve-ha-ezim, p. 337.

            The festival of Shavuot (lit., “weeks”)—the fourth of the seven “appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH” detailed in the Pentateuch and one of the three pilgrimage festivals—is known in the Pentateuch by four names.  In the book of Exodus, it is expressly mentioned as one of the pilgrimage festivals and termed the “Feast of the Harvest” (Ex. 23:14-16); it is later called the “Feast of Weeks, of the first fruits of the wheat harvest” (Ex. 34:22).  In Leviticus (23:15-22), it is mentioned in detail as the day on which “you shall bring an offering of new grain to the Lord/YaHuWaH,” associated with the counting of seven full weeks from “the day after the sabbath,” following the time for harvesting the first sheaf (“omer”; id. 10-11).  In Deuteronomy, the holiday is called the “Feast of Weeks” in the context of the instruction that “You shall count off seven weeks; start to count the seven weeks when the sickle is first put to the standing grain.  Then you shall observe the Feast of Weeks [hag shavu`ot] for the Lord/YaHuWaH your God/Aloah , offering your freewill contribution according as the Lord/YaHuWaH your God/Aloah  has Baruched you.  You shall rejoice before the Lord/YaHuWaH your God/Aloah …at the place where the Lord/YaHuWaH your God/Aloah  will choose to establish His name” (Dt. 16:9-11).  The joy of the festival is associated with the pilgrimage to the sacred place, as stated in Deuteronomy, and the occasion is termed “the day of the first fruits” in Numbers 28:26 on account of the first fruits of the wheat harvest brought to the sanctuary on that day by those who had been Baruched with the harvest and were coming to appear before God/Aloah .  The festival sacrifices, offered by the priests at the sanctuary and including the “offering of new grain to the Lord/YaHuWaH on your Feast of Weeks [on which] you shall observe a sacred occasion” (id.) are described there in detail.

            Rather astonishingly, therefore, this central festival—known variously as the Feast of the Harvest and the Feast of the First Fruits of the Wheat Harvest, the day of the first fruits, the Feast of Weeks, the festival observed on the fiftieth day, after counting seven weeks, one of the three pilgrimage festivals, the feast of the harvest Berachahand the feast of the offering of new grain—is not mentioned by any of its biblical names in the early rabbinic tradition recorded in the Mishnah.  The rabbis identify no commandment uniquely dependent on the Feast of Weeks, which is based on the precise counting of seven Sabbaths or seven weeks, known as the “counting of the omer,” that precedes the pilgrimage to the sanctuary, and the Mishnah likewise contains no tractate devoted to the holiday and named for it, analogous to the tractates devoted to other holidays (such as Sukkah, Pesahim, or Yoma).  Compounding one’s surprise at the omission of the festival from mishnaic tradition and the single fleeting reference to it as an aside in the Tosefta is the perplexing suppression of the ancient tradition’s explicitly stated time for observing it.  That, in turn, becomes even more perplexing given that holiday is known in the ancient, pre-Christian-era priestly tradition recorded in the Book of Jubilees as the day of testimony, the festival of the giving of the Torah, the festival of the covenants, the festival observed by the angels, and the festival associated with Ezekiel’s vision and the tradition of the chariot.  In the Temple Scroll found at Qumran, the festival of Shavuot is described in a manner that blends various biblical traditions and emphasizes the holiday’s place in the sanctuary and in the service of priests who wave the sheaf; it appears in the context of the cycle of seven weeks between the first fruits of the barley harvest and the first fruits of the wheat harvest:

You[JL1]  shall count seven complete Sabbaths from the day of your bringing the sheaf of [the wave-offering.  You shall c]ount until the morrow of the seventh Sabbath.  You shall count [fifty] days.  You shall bring a new grain-offering to YHWH from your homes, [a loaf of fine fl]ou[r], freshly baked with leaven. They are firstfruits to YHWH, wheat  bread, twe[lve cakes, two] tenths of fine flour in each cake…the tribes of Israel.  They shall offer…their [grain-offerin]g and dr[ink-offering] according to the statute.  The [priests] shall wave…[wave-offering with the bread of] the firstfruits.  They shall b[elong to] the priests and they shall eat them in the [inner] court[yard], [as a ne]w [grain-offering], the bread of the firstfruits.  Then…new bread from freshly ripened ears. [On this] da[y] there shall be [a kadosh gathering, an eter]nal [rule] for their generations.  [They] shall [do] no work.  It is the feast of Weeks and the feast of Firstfruits, an eternal[l] memorial (Temple Scroll, XVIII-XIX, Vermes, p. 195).

            The festival of Shavuot was known in antiquity as the festival of Pentecost, as in the Book of Tobit, which describes the pilgrimage and refers to “our festival of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of weeks” (Tobit 1:6-8; 2:1), and in 2 Macc. 12:31 and Josephus (Jewish Antiquities 13:252; Jewish Wars 1:253).  In Christian circles, Pentecost was the festival on which the Kadosh Spirit alit on the Apostles in Jerusalem in connection with the renewal of the covenant (Acts 2:1-4).  Early midrashim from the Land of Israel associate the festival of Shavuot with the angels and with the Chariot tradition tied to the revelation at Sinai: “The Kadosh One Baruched Be He descended on Sinai with 22,000 bands of ministering angels.  Another comment: ‘God/Aloah ’s chariots are myriads upon myriads, thousands upon thousands’ (Ps. 68:18); this teaches that 22,000 chariots descended with the Kadosh One Baruched Be He, and each and every chariot was as the vision seen by Ezekiel” (Pesiqta de-rav kahana, Ba-hodesh ha-shelishi, 107b).  The holiday was linked in the early Jewish-Christian tradition with the receiving of the Torah from the angels, as suggested by the comments of Stephen, the first Christian martyr, who was stoned to death in Jerusalem.  Stephen rebuked the High Priest who served during the fourth decade of the first century CE: “You are the ones that received the law as ordained by angels[JL2] ” (Acts 7:53).  Even earlier, in the mystical tradition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the festival of Shavuot was the festival of the vision of the Chariot, linked to the world of the cherubim and angels, and early in the first millennium BCE, it was the festival associated with the renewal of the Sinai covenant during the third month of the year (2 Chr. 15:10-15).  In kabbalistic lore based on ancient traditions, the festival that renewed the giving of the Torah and the Sinaitic covenant was regarded as the time of the nuptials between the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and the Shekhinah,[2] and the tiqqun leil shavu`ot—a ritual of staying awake all Shavuot night, engaged in study and prayer—was the occasion for readying the bride for her nuptials. That description is based on the portrayal of the Sinaitic covenant as a marriage bond between God/Aloah  and the congregation of Israel; and that, in turn, is connected to the wedding descriptions in the Song of Songs, which tannaitic tradition says was recited at the revelation at Sinai (Song of Songs Rabbah 81:2).  In the debate over whether Song of Songs should be deemed canonical, R. Akiva called the book the “kadosh of holies,” saying that “The entire world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the scriptures are kadosh, but Song of Songs is kadosh of holies” (Mishnah, Yadayim 3:5).  The song that was given at the Sinai revelation is taken to refer to the day of the giving of the Torah as a wedding day, to the groom who gives the Torah and to the congregation of Israel, His bride: “O maidens of Zion, go forth and gaze upon King Solomon wearing the crown that his mother gave him on his wedding day—this is the time of the giving of the Torah; on his day of bliss—this is the building of the Temple” (Mishnah Ta`anit 4:8).  “On his wedding day—this is Sinai, which was his wedding, as it is said, ‘stay pure today and tomorrow’[3] [Ex. 19:10]. On the day of his bliss—this is the giving of the Torah, as it is said, ‘He gave it [the Torah] to Moses when he finished [ke-khaloto] speaking with him’ [Ex. 31:18]. But the ketiv is ‘his bride’ [ke-khalato]” (Numbers Rabbah 12:8).[4]

            Nevertheless, for reasons that will be explained presently, the authors of the Mishnah preferred to suppress these ancient traditions and to avoid drawing explicit connections between the festival of Shavuot and the day of the giving of the Torah, between the giving of the Torah and the revelation of the Chariot, and between the revelation at Sinai and the day of testimony, the day when the covenant was renewed at the time of the wheat harvest.  Instead, they passed in silence over the priestly, mystical traditions associated with the oath, the covenant and its renewal, the giving of the Torah, the divine revelation at Sinai, the encounter the angels, and the Chariot.  They repressed this rich collection of memories when they struck the name “Shavuot” and instead referred to the sacred occasion by the rootless name “Azeret” (lit., assembly), disregarded the renewal of the covenant, and forbade expounding the passage in Ezekiel that describes the Chariot or reading it as the prophetic portion (haftarah) in the synagogue.  During the first generations following the destruction of the Temple, the sages relegated the tradition of the oaths and the covenants to the domain of the forgotten. They did so when they argued with the Sadducees over when the holiday was properly to be celebrated; when they ordained the counting of seven weeks from the day following the first day of Passover instead of counting seven weeks from the day after the Sabbath following the full week of Passover; and when they forbade the reading Ezekiel’s vision of the Chariot, which had been associated with the festival of Shavuot, determining instead that “one does not read the Chariot [as the prophetic passage] for Shavuot (Mishnah, Megillah 4:10).  The commandments related to the first-fruits festival are very briefly treated in the Mishnah; the sages devote to it only a few lines in tractate Bikkurim, which deals primarily with the agricultural aspects of the first-fruit offering and therefore appears in the order Zera`im, pertaining to agricultural matters, rather than in the order Mo`ed, where the other festivals are considered.  No attention is devoted specifically to the wheat harvest, which is conflated with the first fruits that are harvested in the seventh month; the festival is referred to not as Shavuot (Weeks) but as Azeret (Assembly); no gemara was written about this mishnaic passage; and no unique customs are associated with the holiday.  Moreover, the mishnaic passage omits all mention of cherubim and angels; and it transforms the holiday’s association with the vision of the Chariot and the angels into a covert tradition.  To do so, it rules that “the [passage concerning the] Chariot is not expounded” and “the [passage concerning the] Chariot is not read as the prophetic reading.” Moreover, the sages deemed the written traditions that discuss the Chariot, linked to the Kadosh of Holies, and that expand upon the celestial chariots, associated with the calendar for Temple service, to be “external books” (i.e., the non-canonical works of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha) not to be read.  The absence of the festival of Weeks from rabbinic memory is striking, as is the sages’ reluctance to deal with it as the festival of the giving of the Torah and the entry into the covenant, the festival of the written Torah and of the Chariot, the festival observed by the angels, the festival of the offering of new grain and the waving of the first-fruit offering, associated with the counting of seven weeks, or as “[a kadosh gathering, an eter]nal [rule] for their generations…. It is the feast of Weeks and the feast of Firstfruits, an eternal[l] memorial” (Temple Scroll XIX, Vermes, p. 195).  It appears that these phenomena are all associated with the fact that the pre-Common-Era priestly traditions that appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in parallels in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha assign the festival of Shavuot a central place as the festival of renewal of the covenant observed by the angels in heaven (Jub. 6:18) and the priests on earth.

            And so, for example, the second-century-BCE Book of Jubilees tells of the covenant entered into with Noah during the third month, at the conclusion of the flood: “He set his bow in the clouds for a sign of the covenant which is forever…. Therefore it is ordained and written in the heavenly tablets that they should observe the feast of Shebuot [Weeks] in this month, once per year, in order to renew the covenant in all (respects), year by year.  And all of this feast was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation until the days of Noah….” (Jub. 6:16-18).  The parallel version in Gen. 9:16-17 says nothing of the date or of the renewal of the covenant: “‘When the bow is in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God/Aloah  and all living creatures, all flesh that is on the earth.  That,’ God/Aloah  said to Noah, ‘shall be the sign of the covenant that I have established between Me and all flesh that is on earth.’” The rainbow is elsewhere mentioned in the Hebrew Bible only in Ezekiel’s vision, which also forms part of the tradition regarding covenants in the third month, as will be explained below.  In Jubilees, the holiday is termed “the festival of the renewal of the covenant,” a name derived from the command just quoted: “they should observe the feast of Shavuot in this month, once per year, in order to renew the covenant in all (respects), year by year.”  It is referred as well as a day of testimony and a kadosh day (Jub. 6:12, 36-37) and as a twofold feast (Jub. 6:21); and numerous traditions linking the Patriarchs to the covenants and the angels who enter into a covenant in the third month are associated with it (Jub. 14:18-20; 15:1-15; 16:13-14).

            The name Shavuot is associated not only with weeks (shavu`ot) but also with oaths (shevu`ot) and covenant.  It is tied to the covenant entered into between God/Aloah , the liberator from servitude, and those who left Egypt and attained freedom from servitude.  That covenant was entered into at Mount Sinai, after the passing of seven weeks from the start of the Israelites’ journey through the wilderness, which had begun on the twenty-sixth day of the month declared to be the first: “This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months; it shall be the first of the months of the year for you” (Ex. 12:2).

            The festival of Shavuot is known in the Book of Jubilees as the time for renewal of the ancient covenants entered into on that occasion: the covenant of the rainbow, entered into with Noah during the third month, as described earlier, and the covenant between the pieces entered into with Abraham at the mid-point of the third month (Jub. 14:10).  The angels are those who execute the covenant, as the angel of the presence says: “And on that day [the mid-point of the third month], we made a covenant with Abram, just as we had made a covenant in that month with Noah.  And Abram renewed the feast and the ordinance for himself forever” (Jub. 14:20).  Like every one of the seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, the festival of Shavuot forms a crossroads of remembrance and forgetting, canonization and censorship, hegemonic memory and alternative memory, transmission and loss.  It is a holiday linked to the struggle over memory and the weaving of historical alternatives from antiquity to our own time, and it is linked as well to polemics and disputes that have been little considered and that most have preferred to pass over in silence.

            The history of the hidden festival of Shavuot is linked to three disputes that raged in late antiquity: one between the Zadokite priests and the Hasmonean priests during the second century BCE; one between the Sadducees and the Pharisees during the first century BCE and first century CE; and one between the sages and the Jewish-Christians during the first and second centuries CE.  For the priests of the House of Zadok, Shavuot occupied a central and sacred place as the festival of the covenants and oaths executed during the third month and of the renewal of the covenant at that time.  This is evident from passages in Jubilees and the Temple Scroll, from the account of the giving of the Torah that appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls, from the calendar appearing at the beginning of the letter in the Dead Sea Scrolls known as Miqzat ma`aseh ha-torah (“Some Observances of the Law,” abbreviated as MMT), and from the beginning of the Dead Sea “Community Rule,” all of which were written during the last centuries BCE.   The sages, however, who were active following the destruction of the Second Temple, sought to suppress the traditions associated with this priestly festival—the festival of the covenant and the testimony, of the angels and the Chariot; the festival of the Zadokite priests and of the pilgrimage to the Temple.  They did so during the first centuries following the destruction of the Temple, an event that necessarily entailed the abolition of the sacred Temple service and the rejection of the cultic and mystical priestly tradition set forth in the written Torah and its Dead Sea Scroll expansions.  All of those texts without exception were considered sacred scriptures, and many were linked to the Zadokite priests and their covenantal associates, the angels.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *

            The priests of the House of Zadok were a dynasty that served as High Priests for nearly a millennium, from the time of Aaron the priest until 175 BCE.  In the tradition of the rabbinic sages, they are known as Sadducees and Boethians; in Hellenistic literature they are known as the House of Honyo, named for Honyo ben Simeon III, the last Zadokite priest to serve in the Temple in Jerusalem; and in the Dead Sea Scrolls they are known as the Zadokite priests and the men of their covenant, named for Zadok ben Ahituv, the priest who served as the “first among the sons of Phineas” in Jerusalem at the time of King David, as mentioned in the Joshua Apocryphon.  The Bible tells that Zadok was the priest who served in the time of King David (2 Sam. 8:17; 15:24-29) and anointed Solomon as David’s successor (1 Kgs. 1:34, 39-45).  Toward the end of the First Temple period, they are referred to as the sons of Zadok, in view of the words of the priest and prophet Ezekiel: “the priests who perform the duties of the altar—they are the sons of Zadok, who alone of the descendants of Levi may approach the Lord/YaHuWaH to minister to Him” (Ez. 40:46; 43:19; 44:15; 48:11).  Zadok ben Ahituv’s lineage goes back to Aaron, the priest, progenitor of the High Priesthood (Ezra 7:2-5; Neh. 11:11; 1 Chr. 16:39), and his descendants served in Solomon’s Temple until the time of Seraiah, the chief priest, who was exiled with King Jehoiachin (1 Kgs. 4:2; 2 Kgs[JL3] . 25:18; 1 Chr. 5:29-34, 38; 9:11; 2 Chr. 31:10).  Thereafter, the descendants of Seraiah’s grandson, Joshua ben Jehozadak, served in the Second Temple from the return from the Babylonian Exile until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, who conquered Jerusalem in 175 BCE.  The dispute between the Zadokite priests and the sages regarding the time for harvesting the omer and the consequent time for the festival of Shavuot is known as a dispute between Sadducees and Pharisees, but it was preceded by the intense conflict between the displaced Zadokite priests, who maintained the use of a solar calendar, and the Hasmonean priests who supplanted them and maintained the use of a lunar calendar.  For 120 years, from the middle of the second century BCE until the time of Herod, during the final third of the first century BCE, the Hasmonean priests took the place of the Zadokite priests.  In general, little attention is devoted to the nature of these disputes, which related to the festival of Shavuot, the festival of the renewal of the covenant and the time of the priestly  Berachah, and were tied to the dispute over the fixed weekly calendar vs. the variable monthly calendar and to the dispute over the times of the harvest.  That lack of attention may be attributable to the complexity of the disputes’ historical context, to the widespread anachronistic tendency to read ancient history exclusively through the rabbinic tradition, or to the struggles over remembrance and forgetting that have been waged through the ages, from antiquity until our own time.

            The disputes over the festival of Shavuot—its names and timing, the commandments that depend on it, and the memories associated with it—are connected to the polemic over the calendar and the struggle over who had the authority to fix it and determine the premises that would guide its calculation.  The Torah, in the formulation adopted by the sages following the destruction of the Temple, does not specify a fixed number of days in a year or in a month, does not specify a day of the week to be associated in advance with the date for any of the seven fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, and lacks a set time for the festival of Shavuot.  In contrast, the parallel and earlier versions of the Torah found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, written by the “priests of the House of Zadok and the men of their covenant,” contain a fixed time for Shavuot, known and calculated in advance—Sunday, the fifteenth day of the third month, seven weeks after the day of waving the sheaf; the latter observance likewise is always on a Sunday, the twenty-sixth day of the first month.  The difference between the two perspectives flowed from the view of the Zadokite priests and the men of their covenant that the Temple was to follow a fixed, 364-day solar calendar, known and calculated in advance.  The calendar was made known by the angels to Enoch son of Jared, of the seventh Adamite generation (Gen. 5:21-24; Jub. 4:16-25) and is associated with various events in the tradition of the books of Genesis and Jubilees.  The calendar began each year with the first day of the first month (Ex. 12:2), which always fell on a Wednesday, the day on which the sun, moon, and stars were created; it was the first day of the month of Nisan, the day of the vernal equinox.  The year thus began with the day on which the heavenly luminaries were created, in the first month, also known as the month of Abib, from which cyclical and eternal Jewish time was counted—a time system encompassing cycles of respite from servitude.  The times of respite were termed in the Bible “the appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH” and were tied to the counting of seven-based cycles that establish the covenant.  In the Book of Exodus, the first month is the month of transition form enslavement to liberty, and it is the point from which one begins to count the Sabbaths and the seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH.  Time is marked by Sabbaths, by the seven appointed times, and by sabbatical years and jubilees, all of which point to the covenant through sacred seven-based cycles.  This seven-based cycle is introduced by “These are the set times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, the sacred occasions, which you shall celebrate each at its appointed time” (Lev. 23:4) and is detailed in Chap. 23 of Leviticus; it is referred to in the Scrolls as “appointed times of freedom.” These seven appointed times, and the cycles of sabbatical years and jubilees associated with them in the seven-based cycles of respite, are tied to the commandments made known in the covenant entered into in the third month on the festival of Shavuot, in the encounter at Sinai.

            The Dead Sea Scrolls version of “The Book of Heavenly Luminaries,” a portion of 1 Enoch (chapters 72-82), tells of the receipt of the calendar from the angels, and Jubilees (chapter 6) recounts the flood story as the story of the calculation of the calendar.  According to both of these texts, the year is divided into four equal quarters of ninety-one days each.  The first day of each quarter is called the “day of remembrance.”  As already noted, the first day of the year is invariably a Wednesday, the day on which the heavenly luminaries were created; it is the day of remembrance on the first day of the first month.   Each of the quarters, corresponding to the four seasons of the year, likewise begins on a Wednesday: the first of Nisan, corresponding to the vernal equinox; the first of Tammuz, the summer solstice; the first of Tishri, the autumnal equinox; and the first of Tevet, the winter solstice.  Each quarter began with the day of remembrance on a Wednesday, encompassed thirteen Sabbaths with designated dates, and continued for thirteen identical weeks.  The first Sabbath would fall invariably on the fourth day of the first month of the quarter, and the final Sabbath, the thirteenth in the quarter, would fall on the twenty-eighth of the third month.

            The festival of Shavuot, on this calendar, always falls on the day following the eleventh Sabbath of the first quarter, that is, Sunday, the fifteenth day of the third month.  All of the quarters are marked by a similar, regular division into thirteen Sabbaths having fixed dates, known in advance: the first Sabbath in the quarter falls on the fourth day of the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth months, respectively, and the final Sabbath in the quarter falls on the twenty-eighth day of the third, sixth, ninth and twelfth months, respectively.  Each month numbered thirty days, and at the end of the third month in each quarter—which always ended on a Tuesday[JL4] —an additional day was added, making for a month of thirty-one days.  This additional day, the ninety-first in the quarter, was called “yom pagu`a,” (“the defective day”).  Once every seven years, during the sabbatical year, an extra week appears to have been added in order to make up the difference between the 364 days of their calendar and the solar year of 365¼ days, a period well known in antiquity and referred to in 2 Enoch.  They may have added two weeks once every twenty-eight years in order to make up the missing quarter day.  They selected a year of 364 days rather than of 365¼ days, as astronomical calculation of the solar year would require, because the priestly calendar was one of fixed Sabbaths, calculated in advance and based on a symmetric division of the days of the year and its seasons into equal seven-day periods.  The symmetrical yearly calendar of identical weekly and quarterly periods comprised fifty-two weeks, as detailed in the Psalms Scroll found in Qumran Cave 11, and was divided into four equal, 91-day periods, as detailed in Enoch and Jubilees.  On this fixed, mathematically calculated calendar, which provided the underpinnings for the priestly sacred service and was anchored in oath and covenant, each Sabbath and each of the seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH had a fixed day, a fixed date, and a fixed interval between it and the appointed time that preceded it.  The three pilgrimage festivals fell on the fifteenth of the first, third, and seventh months.  Thus, the festival of Shavuot—the appointed time of the first fruits of the wheat harvest, set by Scripture at seven weeks following the time of the barley harvest—invariably fell on Sunday, the fifteenth of the third month, seven weeks after the time of the waving of the sheaf.  The latter, according to the priestly calendar, invariably fell on the Sunday following the conclusion of the Passover festival, the twenty-sixth of the first month.  This 364-day, 52-week calendar is referred to at various points in the Dead Sea Scrolls.  It begins with the month of Abib (that is, Nisan) and, as noted, comprises four 91-day seasons (Jub. 6:23-29); they are known as the season of early harvest, the summer time, the season of sowing, and the season of grass (Comm. Rule, 1QS X:7).  The calendar is discussed in various traditions, beginning with the books of Jubilees and Enoch, continuing through the Qumran Psalms Scroll and the calendar at the beginning of MMT, and culminating in the Temple Scroll, the Priestly Courses Scroll and the Qumran version of the flood story, which is an account of the determination of the yearly calendar.  All of the Zadokite priestly traditions are identical in this regard, emphasizing the fixed 364-day year divided into fifty-two weeks that were allocated to the twenty-four priestly courses (1 Chr. Ch. 24) who served in the Temple for one week at a time on a fixed rotation and after whom the weeks of the festivals were named.  The Qumran Priestly Courses Scroll enumerates the cycles of songs sung by the priests over a period of hundreds of years.  During the six-year period between sabbatical years, each of the twenty-four courses of priests was on duty thirteen times for a week at a time and followed the song cycles listed in the Priestly Courses Scroll.  The priestly courses—the groups who maintained the rotation in the sanctuary—were endowed with responsibility for the eternal priestly covenant; they observed the continuous annual cycle of fifty-two Sabbaths and seven appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH along with the seven-year cycle of sabbatical years and jubilees.  These cycles were the essence of the eternal testimony to the sacred cycles of respite (“the appointed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, kadosh convocations”) that maintain the covenant; accordingly, the festival of Shavuot, which attests to them, is called “the day of testimony.”  The cycles embodied the essence of the oath taken at Sinai, the oath that the festival of Shavuot was meant to maintain and renew annually.  Once each of the priestly courses had served thirteen times over six years, the seventh year was declared to be a sabbatical year in which work ceased, just as the seven days of the week concluded with the seventh day, the Sabbath, on which all labor was forbidden.  After seven seven-year cycles—forty-nine years—a jubilee year was declared. The twenty-four priestly courses were a living liturgical calendar, for their rotation into and out of service every Sunday marked the start of the new week and their rotation after fifty-two weeks marked the start of a new year.  The completion of thirteen cycles of service by each of the twenty-four courses marked the time for the sabbatical year, and the completion of ninety-one cycles of service marked the time for the jubilee.  The rigorous observance of these eternal and sacred seven-based cycles of respite from labor—fixed and calculated in advance as cycles of rest, sabbatical year, equality, freedom, and liberty, and made known from the heavens through the oath and covenant at Sinai—were regarded by the Zadokite priests as the essence of the oath and covenant maintained by the festival of Shavuot and written in the tablets of the covenant.

*     *     *     *     *     *

            According to the priestly historiography, this solar calendar of Sabbaths, mathematically calculated in advance and always beginning in the month of Abib (Nisan) was followed in the sanctuary from the time of the High Priest Zadok son of Ahituv, who served in the First Temple and whose descendants are referred to by the prophet Ezekiel—himself a priest—as “the levitical priests who are of the stock of Zadok, and so eligible to minister to Me” (Ezek. 43:19).  It remained in force until 175 BCE, the year in which the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus III (a descendant of Alexander the Great’s successors) came to power.  He conquered Jerusalem and imposed, in the Temple as throughout his dominions, the Seleucid-Greek calendar (Dan. 7:25; 11:31).  That calendar, instituted for administrative reasons, was a lunar calendar whose year began in the fall; it was based on human observation of the moon and required intercalation to keep the lunar and solar years synchronized—something not contemplated by the Bible.  The High Priest serving in Jerusalem at the time—Honyo ben Simeon, the last of the Zadokite priests—rejected Antiochus’s demand to institute the lunar calendar with its variable number of days.  He insisted that there could be no change in the sacred, 364-day solar calendar with its spring-time new year, a calendar that was based on divinely revealed fixed calculations and that provided the basis for the entire sacred service of the priestly courses.  For his defiance, Honyo was ousted by Antiochus from his position as High Priest and, in 171 BCE, was murdered by Andronicus, an agent of the Hellenizing High Priest Menelaus, whom Antiochus had appointed.  From 175 to 164 BCE, Antiochus appointed a series of Hellenizing high priests who purchased the position and obeyed Antiochus’s directive to change the calendar.  Three Hellenizing priests—Jason, Menelaus, and Alcimus—served in place of the ousted Zadokite priests between 175 and 159 BCE.  In the wake of the Hasmonean war against Antiochus (167-164 BCE) and the corrupt and defiling calendar and ritual that he imposed on the Temple (Dan. 11: 31-32; 2 Macc. 6:1-7), the Hasmonean dynasty came to power, serving as priests from 152 to 37 BCE.  During that long period, the ousted Zadokites and their allies called themselves “the sons of light,” for they struggled on behalf of the sacred, seven-based solar calendar, in which the festival of Shavuot would always fall on Sunday, the fifteenth of the third month, following the eleventh Sabbath of the quarterly season, as written in the MMT Scroll found at Qumran.  In the account of the calendar with which that letter begins, its authors determined that: “[…On the seventh of the third month: sabbath. On the fourteenth of it: sabbath. On the fifteenth of it: Feast of Weeks. On the twenty-f]irs[t] of it: sabbath. [On] the twenty-eighth of it: sabbath. The first of the sabbath (=Sunday) and the second[d da]y (=Monday) [and the third are to be added. And the season is complete: ninety-one days…]” (MMT A:I-II, Vermes, pp. 221-222).  The Zadokites referred to their rivals, the Hasmonean priests, as the “sons of darkness.”  The latter were not included in the biblical account of the high priestly dynasty and assumed the priesthood by force of arms (1 Macc. Chap. 10).  They adopted the Seleucid calendar—a variable, lunar calendar, dependent on human observation of the new moon and precluding advance determination of the times for the festivals.  The Hasmonean priests came to power as the appointees of Antiochus’s successors, King Alexander Balus and King Demetrius II, during the 150s and 140s BCE (1 Macc. 10:18-21; 11:27-37, 57-58; 13:36-42; 14:38), and these Seleucid kings imposed their lunar calendar on the Hasmoneans, their protégés.  The Hasmoneans were termed not only “the sons of darkness” but also “the priest of wickedness” (opposite of “the priest of righteousness”), the “sons of evil” (opposite of “the sons of righteousness”), and the “dominion of malice and Mastema”; they were so called because they stole the priesthood from the Zadokites, desecrated and defiled the sanctuary, and accepted—evidently having no choice in the matter—the lunar calendar of their Seleucid patrons.  In contrast to the Hasmonean priests, who affirmed the variable lunar calendar and were therefore termed “sons of darkness” and “sons of evil, nullifiers of the covenant,” the Zadokite priests, who adhered to the fixed and sacred solar calendar, termed themselves “sons of light” and “sons of righteousness, preservers of the covenant.”  They saw themselves as loyal to the covenant, divinely chosen to maintain the ways of righteousness and of the sacred and covenantal appointed times, grounded on preservation of the fixed, pre-calculated, seven-based cycles.  They saw themselves as well as preservers of the sacred priestly courses, the stock of Aaron, who was the holiest of the kadosh, able to trace their lineage all the way back to the Israelites’ wandering in the wilderness, and “the stock of Zadok, and so eligible to minister to me” (Ezek. 43:19), going back to the kingdom of David and Solomon.  The Qumran Habakkuk Commentary, written in the circles of the “men of truth who keep the Law”  (Vermes, p. 482) and are led by the Teacher of Righteousness (id.), tells of a struggle between two priestly houses regarding the time for observing the fast of the Day of Atonement.  On the one hand are those loyal to “the Covenant of God/Aloah ” who follow the path of light[JL5] ; they are the House of Zadok.  Arrayed against them are “the breakers of the Covenant” who walk in the paths of darkness; they are the Hasmoneans.  The scroll describes how the wicked Hasmonean priest persecutes the righteous Zadokite priest on the day considered to be the Day of Atonement on the sacred Zadokite calendar (Friday, the tenth day of the seventh month):

Its interpretation concerns the Wicked Priest who pursued the Teacher of Righteousness to consume him with the heat of his anger in the place of his banishment.  In festival time, during the rest of the day of Atonement, he appeared to them to consume them and make them fall on the day of fasting, the sabbath of their rest (DSSSE p. 21).

The Day of Atonement and the festival of Shavuot were the two central priestly festivals on which the service of the High Priest was assigned the highest level of importance.  Shavuot stood at the focus of the Zadokite world, for they interpreted its name as referring not[JL6]  only to weeks (from shavu`a, a week) but also to an oath or covenant (shevu`ah), as declared by Jeremiah, the priest-prophet: “Who keeps for our benefit the weeks [shevu`ot, also translatable as ‘oaths’] appointed for harvest” (Jer. 5:24) (Ezek[JL7] . 16:8) and consistent with the meaning of the word sheva in Scripture, also associated with an oath or covenant (Gen. 26:31-33). As noted, the oath concerns the maintenance of the seven-based cycles of respite referred to as “the fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH…sacred occasions” and as the “times of liberty” established in the fixed, eternal, and pre-determined order of cycles made known in the covenant of Sinai that was entered into on the festival of Shavuot.  These cycles of respite preserve the cycles of days of freedom and liberty that lie at the basis of the covenant between God/Aloah  and his people.  Their meaning is that man is bound by oath to forgo his dominion, possession, and ownership on one day in every seven; on the seven appointed times that fall during the first seven months of each year; during one year in every seven; and once in every seven seven-year cycles.  Man is commanded to rest, in accord with these seven-based cycles of appointed times, from all labor and from any enslavement of himself or another; to cease from earning any profit and from changing creation for his benefit.  This respite from all labor entails following the paths of righteousness, which interrupt secular enslavement and treat all members of the resting community equally, sanctifying them through the sacred occasions.  These ways of righteousness are conditioned on observing “the fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH…the sacred occasions” and are tied to “the spirits of true and righteous knowledge in the Kadosh of Holies,” as referred to in the Song for the Sacrifice of the Eleventh Sabbath found at Qumran[JL8] .  That sabbath (the eleventh) falls on the fourteenth day of the third month, the day preceding the festival of Shavuot, which always falls on Sunday, the fifteenth day of the third month.  The ways of true and righteous knowledge were conditioned on the cycles of respite and release, of renouncing mastery and ownership, wealth and enslavement, all in accord with the rhythm of fixed, seven-based cycles.  These continuous cycles of “fixed times, the fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, which you shall proclaim as sacred occasions” (Lev. 23:2) constitute cycles of social justice; sacred, seven-based cycles preserved in oath and covenant.  They comprise a periodic waiver of mastery and renunciation of ownership, emancipation of lands and emancipation of slaves.  These cycles, all based on seven (sheva) and oath (shevu`ah), consist of five[JL9]  segments: fifty-two Sabbaths and seven fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, all falling during the first seven months of the year (Lev. 23), on which no work at all permitted; together they come to seventy days every year.  In addition, they include the sabbatical years once in every seven years and the jubilee once in every seven seven-year cycles (Lev. 23:1-14).  These cycles are the precondition to the Berachahof the seven species with which the Land of Israel is Baruched during the first seven months of the year, during which the seven “fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH” fall.

            The oath and the covenant—referred to, as noted, in the words of the priest-prophet Jeremiah as “the weeks [oaths] appointed for harvest”—are based, on the one hand, on the divine promise given to those who observe the covenant grounded on seven-based cycles of human rest and, on the other, on divine Berachahthrough seven-based cycles of agricultural productivity.  The covenant was entered into with those adjured to maintain the seven-based cycles of respite, known as the “fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, the sacred occasions.”  Those who observe these cycles will be Baruched with, and enjoy to satiation, the seven forms of produce yielded by the Land of Israel during the first seven months of the year—that is, between Nisan and Tishri—in accord with God/Aloah ’s words that sum up the Torah portion of Be-har and introduce the portion of Be-huqqotai:

[If] you…keep my sabbaths and venerate My sanctuary [or: My sacred occasions—R. E.]….If you follow My laws and faithfully observe My commandments, I will grant your rains in their season, so that the earth shall yield its produce and the trees of the field their fruit.  Your threshing shall overtake the vintage, and your vintage shall overtake the sowing; you shall eat your fill of bread and dwell securely in your land….I will…make you fertile and multiply you; and I will maintain My covenant with you (Lev. 26:2-9).

“Threshing” refers to the barley harvest and the wheat harvest, which are seven Sabbaths, or seven weeks: the barley harvest—that is the “sheaf” (omer), as noted, is on Sunday, the twenty-sixth day of Nisan, and the wheat harvest is seven sabbaths later, on Sunday, the fifteenth of Sivan.  The “vintage” is the time for gathering wine grapes, which begins seven sabbaths, or seven weeks, following the conclusion of the wheat harvest, on Sunday, the third day of the month of Av.  Seven weeks after that, on Sunday, the twenty-second of the month of Elul, is the beginning of the olive-pressing season.  After these four species have been gathered—at seven-week intervals during the period running from the first month through the sixth; that is, barley on Sunday, 26 Nisan (termed “the festival of the barley time” in the Priestly Courses Scroll), wheat on Sunday, 15 Sivan, wine on Sunday, 3 Av, and oil on Sunday, 22 Elul—the year concludes with the seven-day festival of Sukkot, beginning at the mid-point of the seventh month, Tishri.  It is then that dates, figs, and pomegranates are harvested in their respective ways.  The dates for harvesting all seven of these species are specified in the Qumran Temple Scroll and alluded to in Scripture in the expression “grain, wine, and oil.”

            An example of this seven-based enumeration, providing for seven-week cycles between the onsets of the times for harvesting the first four of the seven species (barley, wheat, grapes and olives) can be found in the Temple Scroll’s comments about the time of the grape harvest, which begins seven weeks after the time for the offering of new bread first-fruits—that is, the wheat time, the festival of Shavuot:

You [shall count] seven weeks from the day when you bring the new grain-offering to YHW[H], the bread of firstfruits.  Seven full Sabbaths [shall elapse un]til you have counted fifty days to the morrow of the seventh Sabbath. [You] shall [bring] new wine for a drink-offering (Temple Scroll XIX:11-14; Vermes, p. 195).

Maintenance of the sacred seven-based cycle of rest on the Sabbaths, the seven fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, the sabbatical years, and the jubilees—detailed in God/Aloah ’s word in Torah portions of Emor and Be-har (Lev. 23 and 25) and in God/Aloah ’s word transmitted in the first person in the Temple Scroll—ensures the continuation of the seven-based cycles of harvest or the annual cycle of the seven species that promises  Berachah, fertility, and life, as detailed in the portion of Be-huqqotai (Lev. 26). The encounter at Sinai at the middle of the third month (Ex. 19:1; Jub. 1:1) takes place at the time of the first-fruit festival—the fixed time of the wheat harvest; the festival of Shavuot; the time of the “weeks [oaths] appointed for harvest” (Jer. 5:24); the time at which the covenant was entered into and the oath was taken regarding the seven-based cycles of respite commanded from the heavens, whose pinnacle is the festival of Shavuot; the day of testimony; the festival observed by the angels on high, known as the festival of the giving of the Torah.  There is a divine command regarding cyclical times of rest on Sabbaths and on the seven sacred fixed times, during the sabbatical year and the jubilee, all of which were made known by divine revelation at the time the covenant was entered into at Sinai; and the promises made to those who maintain the covenant, also made known at that time, are renewed and attested to again annually, in concrete form, beginning with the entry into the Land of Israel at the fiftieth jubilee (Jub. 50).  That process takes place through the cyclical renewal of the “weeks [oaths] appointed for harvest” and the harvest cycles of the seven species, all dependent on divine  Berachah.  That  Berachah, in turn, is conditioned on maintaining the way of righteousness through oath, respite, and renunciation of mastery on one day in every seven; on each of the seven fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH; during one year in every seven; and during the jubilee year once in every seven seven-year cycles.  These sanctified, seven-based cycles of sacred time were observed in the Temple by the priests of the House of Zadok and the priests of the House of Aaron, the guardians of the sacred courses, who served in the Temple by divine selection (Ex. 27:21; 28:1; 29:44; Lev. 3:38; 1 Chr. 23:13) and were maintained by oath and covenant as summed up in the calendar of Sabbaths, fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH, sabbatical years, and jubilees referred to earlier.  For the people, all of whom (except for the tribe of Levi) were engaged in agriculture, the harvest times were days of rest, joy and gladness (“you shall rejoice in your festival”).  The planters and reapers who realize Berachahin their toil would joyfully and gratefully bring to the Temple the first fruits of their barley harvest, along with the first fruits of their wheat, grape, and olive harvests at seven-week intervals during the first seven months of the year (Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 31:5; 32:28; Hos. 2;10; Neh. 10:40).

            2 Chronicles, chapter 15, recounts the joy felt by the pilgrims going up to Jerusalem during the third month for the festival of Shavuot, the first-fruits festival of the wheat harvest, in the time of King Asa, Solomon’s great-grandson, who reigned in Jerusalem from 908 to 867 BCE.  The pilgrims, grateful for the Berachahof the harvest, came to reenter and renew the covenant, to seek God/Aloah, and to swear an oath to God/Aloah  in loud voice, accompanied by trumpets and rams’ horns recalling the encounter at Sinai (2 Chr. 15:10-15).  In its translation of that passage, the Aramaic Targum of Chronicles refers specifically to the festival of Shavuot.

            The Qumran Community Rule text describes a ceremony by which those who maintain the oath related to the priestly, seven-based cycle of rest and the solar calendar of Sabbaths enter into the covenant on the festival of Shavuot:

In order to seek God/Aloah  with [all (one’s) heart and] with a[ll (one’s) soul;] in order to do what is good and just in his presence, as he commanded by the hand of Moses and by the hand of all his servants the Prophets….In order to welcome all those who freely volunteer to carry out God/Aloah ’s decrees into the covenant of kindness; in order to be united in the counsel of God/Aloah  and walk in perfection in his sight, comply with all revealed things concerning the regulated times of their stipulations….And all those who enter in the Rule of the Community shall establish a covenant before God/Aloah  in order to carry out all that he commanded….When they enter the covenant, the priests and the levites shall Baruch  the God/Aloah  of victories and all the works of his faithfulness and all those who enter the covenant shall repeat after them: “Amein, Amein” (Rule of the Community, I:1-20; DSSSE, p. 71).

The account, only part of which is quoted above, concludes with the Berachah recited by the priests for each individual entering the covenant:

And the priests will Baruch all the men of God/Aloah ’s lot who walk unblemished in all his paths and they shall say: “May he Baruch  you with everything good, and may he protect you from everything bad.  May he illuminate your heart with the discernment of life and grace you with eternal knowledge.  May he lift upon you the countenance of his favor for eternal peace” (Rule of the Community II:1-4; DSSSE, pp. 71-73).

            This  Berachah is an interesting priestly version of the priests’   Berachah prescribed in Num. 6:24-27; the version here is addressed to an individual and does not mention God/Aloah ’s name, while that in Numbers mentions God/Aloah ’s name three times.  The Dead Sea Scrolls also include a version of the Berachah addressed to the congregation as a whole, to be recited by the priest for the pilgrims coming to renew the covenant before God/Aloah and the angels.  That version likewise mentions God/Aloah ’s name several times; it is the source of the Berachah of the cyclical four seasons of the year—referred to in Enoch as the “chariots of heaven” (1 Enoch 75:3[JL10] )—and of the treasure house of Baruched rain, the preconditions to the cycles of productivity and fertility:

[Answering, he shall say] to the sons of [I]srael: May you be Baruched in the name of the Most High [God/Aloah ]…and may His Kadosh name be Baruched for ever and ever.  [May all His kadosh angels be Baruch ed. May] the M[ost High] God/Aloah  [Baruch ] you. [May He shine His face towards you and open for you His] good [treasure] which is in heaven [to bring down on your land] showers of Berachah, dew, rain, [early rain] and late rain in His/its time, and to give [you the fruit of the produce of corn, wine, and o]il plentiful.  And may the land [prod]uce for [you fruits of delight. And you shall eat and grow f]at.  And there shall be no miscarriage [in yo]ur [la]n[d] and no [sickness, blight or mildew] shall be seen in [its] produ[ce. And there shall be no loss of children n]or stumbling in [your] congrega[tion, and wild beasts shall withdraw] from your land and there shall be no pestil[ence in your land.] For God/Aloah  is wi[th you and His kadosh angels stand in your congregation, and His] kadosh [name] shall be invoked upon you…in your midst… (4Q285[JL11] , fr. 1, Vermes, pp. 187-188).

            The High Priest’s Berachah for the festival pilgrims, recited in the Temple before God/Aloah and the angels and before the Ark of the Covenant and the cherubim (cf. BT Yoma 54a), was in the nature of a renewal of the covenant and oath entered into at Sinai on the festival of Shavuot, the festival of the giving of the Torah.  But it was also a Berachah of thanksgiving for the satiety and abundance granted to those who maintained the covenant, who had just now gathered their wheat harvest into the granary.  Entry into the covenant was the pivotal event in the world of the Zadokite priests, for it constituted undeniable evidence of the link between resting on the seven-based cycle of sacred fixed times and the Berachah of the harvest.  It also served as a promise that this Berachah would be renewed in the ensuing year for those who maintain the covenant and rest on Sabbaths and festivals, sabbatical years, and jubilees.  The Zadokite priests declared, on the Sabbath preceding the festival of Shavuot, their faith in “the spirits of true and righteous knowledge in the Holy/Kadosh of Holies,” as set forth in the Song for the Sabbath Sacrifice.  They believed with all their hearts in “justice, justice shall you pursue” and spoke of the “covenant of kindness” and the commandment to support the stranger, the orphan, and the widow and to walk in the ways of righteousness.  In their writings, they waged war against those who walked in the ways of corruption and evil, headed by the wicked Hasmonean priest, whom they spoke of in their commentary on Hab. 2:14:

Because of the blood of men and the violence done to the land, the city, and all its inhabitants…. Interpreted, the city is Jerusalem where the wicked priest committed abominable deeds and defiled the Temple of God/Aloah .  The violence done to the land: these are the cities of Judah where he robbed the Poor of their possessions (Commentary on Habakkuk XII; Vermes, p. 484).

            In the writings of the Zadokite priests and the men of their covenant, the festival of Shavuot—referred to as well as the “festival of weeks,” the “day of testimony,” and the “second festival” and described as the festival celebrated by the angels on high from Creation until the encounter at Sinai—is the festival of the giving of the Torah.  That is the view taken in Jub. 1:1, in the Dead Sea Scrolls, in the Samaritan tradition, the Ethiopic tradition, and the tradition of the Babylonian Talmud (Pesahim 68b).  The Amidah prayer for Shavuot so states explicitly: “this festival day of Shavuot, the time of the giving of our Torah” (cf. Shulhan arukh, Orah hayyim 494:1).  But this identification of the festival of Shavuot with the time of the encounter at Sinai, the time at which the Written Torah was given, is nowhere stated in the masoretic version of the Torah, as edited by the sages of the Oral Torah following the destruction of the Temple, and it is not expressly mentioned in the Mishnah or the Tosefta.  A fragmentary tradition found among the Qumran Scrolls describes the festival of Shavuot and the entry into the covenant at Sinai, linked to the giving of the Torah (referred to here as “the precepts of Moses”) in wording that preserves the exalted essence of the revelatory encounter; the fear and trembling associated with the divine loftiness and wondrous sounds; and the angelic speech linking heaven and earth, heard from the mouth of Moses as he sanctifies himself before the glory/Kavod of God/Aloah :

[…] and your signs … […] they understand the precepts of Moses. […] And Elyab[o(?)] began to speak, saying: He[ar,] congregation of yhwh, and pay attention, all the assembly …[…] to a[ll his] wor[ds] and [his] rulin[g]s. Cursed is the man who does not persevere and keep and carry [out] all the la[ws of y]hwh by the mouth of Moses his anointed one, to follow yhwh, the God/Aloah  of our fathers, who command[ed] us from the mountains of Sina[i.]  He has spoken wi[th] the assembly of Israel face to face, like a man speaks to his neighbour.  And like a man sees li[gh]tm he has appeared to us in a burning fire, from above, from heaven, and on earth he stood on the mountain to teach us that there is no God/Aloah apart from him and no Rock like Him. [And all] the assembly […][…] … and trembling seized them before the glory/Kavod of God/Aloah  and the wonderful thunders, and they stayed at a distance.  But Moses, the man of God/Aloah , was with God/Aloah  in the cloud, and the cloud covered him because […] when He sanctified him and he spoke as an angel through his mouth, for who was a messen[ger] like him, a man of the pious ones? And he sho[wed…] … which were never created before or afterward… […] …  (4Q377; DSSSE, p. 745).

            Religious precepts, as we know, cannot be given without an epiphany, and the entry into the covenant, or the giving of the divine law made known in the encounter at Sinai, was bound up with a glorious divine revelation: “Now the Presence of the Lord/YaHuWaH appeared in the sight of the Israelites as a consuming fire on the top of the mountain” (Ex. 24:17).  In response, “All the people witnessed the thunder and lightening and the blare of the horn and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they fell back and stood at a distance (Ex. 20:14).  According to the version in the Scrolls, God/Aloah ’s commandments from Sinai were bound up with burning fire from the shaking heavens or with fear and trembling that seized those who were present on account of the “wondrous voices” and the glory/Kavod of God/Aloah speaking “with the assembly of Israel face to face.”  The transmission of the laws of Moses to the congregation of the Lord/YaHuWaH, and the glorification of the image of Moses, a man of the tribe of Levi, are likewise bound up with the covenant at Sinai according to this version, which constitutes an account of an exalted divine revelation that took place at the middle of the third month.  The revelation served as a numinous structure, filled with splendor and exaltation, for the ceremony of entering into the covenant at the middle of the third month, a ceremony performed by the Zadokite priests at the Temple in Jerusalem.  The account at the beginning of the Community Rule, quoted in part earlier, and the account in chapter 15 of 2 Chronicles, attest to the importance of the oath-renewal and covenantal ceremony on the festival of Shavuot at the middle of the third month and to its link to the giving of the tablets of the covenant at the Sinai encounter.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *

            The cycles of sacred time are preserved in oath and covenant and ensure the precise recurrence of the barley harvest each year on Sunday, the twenty-sixth day of the first month, and the wheat harvest seven Sabbaths later, on Sunday, the fifteenth day of the third month.  Maintaining those cycles is tied as well to the structure of the sacred space that houses the sacred law, written on the tablets of the Covenant and kept in the Ark of the Covenant over which the cherubim spread their wings.  As noted, the giving of the tablets of the Covenant on Sunday, the fifteenth of the third month, is linked to the divine revelation on the festival of Covenant and testimony, and that revelation of the One Who dwells upon the Cherubim (1 Sam. 4:4; 2 Sam. 6:2; Ps. 99:1) is tied to the sacred place, the Kadosh of Holies, in which the cherubim were situated (Ex. 25:18-22; 1 Kgs. 6:23-28; 2 Chr. 3:10-13).  At the time the tabernacle was built by the Israelites in the wilderness, the cherubim were constructed in accord with a celestial pattern shown to Moses at Mount Sinai (Ex. 25:40); later, when the Temple was built in Jerusalem, they were constructed in accord with a heavenly pattern shown to David: “…the gold for the figure of the chariot—the cherubs—those with outspread wings screening the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord/YaHuWaH.  All this that the Lord/YaHuWaH made me understand by His hand on me, I give you in writing—the plan of all the works” (1 Chr. 28:18-19).  During the time of the Zadokite priests’ service, the Temple was the place where the seven-based cycles of oath and covenant were maintained, at least ideally, in both law and practice; the mechanisms for doing so included sacrifices, prayers,  Brachot, and sacred assemblies performed by the priests who maintained the sacred courses.  According to the biblical historiography, the Zadokite priests served continuously for nearly one thousand years, from the time of Aaron the priest, Moses’ brother, until time of Honyo ben Simeon, who was murdered by those who ousted him and seized his place in 171 BCE.

            In the ideal order of these priestly writers, the traditions regarding the sacred place of the cherubim’s Chariot in the Kadosh of Holies and the heavenly chariot described in the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice—“his glorious chariots […] kadosh cherubs, shining ophanim, in the in[ner shrine … spirits of God/Aloah s…purity…]” (4Q405, frag. 20; DSSSE, p. 833)—were integrated with the tradition of sacred time, that is, the tradition of the “heavenly chariots” in the Book of Enoch, which expressed the eternity of the cycles of time visible to the eye, as learned from the angels (1 Enoch 75:4).  The “heavenly chariots” are the continuous, natural cycles of time associated with the celestial luminaries and the seasons of the year; they are independent of human reckoning and depend only on the kindness of God/Aloah  and the angels, extended equally to all creatures (see “The Book of Heavenly Luminaries,” 1 Enoch, chaps. 72-82). They are supplemented by “fixed times of liberty,” that is, the seven-based cycles made known aurally at the Sinai encounter; the latter are dependent on the reckoning of the human beings who rest and are maintained in covenant and oath by those who enter the covenant.  Naturally enough, the vagaries of history subjected this ideal system, which prophets and priests sought to hand down, to varied and recurring challenges.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *

            Early in the sixth century BCE, around the time of the destruction of the First Temple, the tradition of the cherubim and the structure of the chariot in the Kadosh of Holies was tied to the vision of the Chariot, in which the priest-prophet Ezekiel ben Buzi saw the appearance of cherubim.  In his vision of the future Temple (chapters 40-48 of the book that bears his name), Ezekiel spoke at length in praise of the Zadokite priests, and many of his prophecies were tied to the fixed times and the sanctuary.  The mystical tradition sets Shavuot as the time of Ezekiel’s vision and explains the opening verse of his book: “R. Eliezer began and said: In the thirtieth year, on the fifth day of the fourth month, when I was in the community of exiles by the Chebar Canal—on the fifth day we have already explained, but this day was the day of Shavuot, that being the day on which Israel received the Torah on Mount Sinai” (Zohar hadash, parashat yitro 37c).  Judah Liebes, a Zohar scholar, has determined that the idra rabba (an assembly of sages) described in the Zohar and often equated in the text itself to the encounter at Sinai and the giving of the Torah, was, in fact, a tiqqun leil shavu`ot (an all-night mystical and study session on Shavuot night), for the Zohar states that the idra rabba took place on Shavuot.  The conclusion unconditionally reached by scientific study coincides with that reached in the mystical tradition, for according to calculations based on the metonic cycle (which synchronizes dates on the lunar and solar calendars), Ezekiel’s vision indeed took place on Shavuot, the festival of the terrestrial Temple which held the cherubim in its Kadosh of Holies and which became, in the vision of the exiled priest prophesying in the time of the destruction, a heavenly chariot or the place of the cherubim in the heavenly chariot.  If that is so, the surprising date that opens the Book of Ezekiel—“In the thirtieth year, on the fifth day of the fourth month…. On the fifth day of the month—it was the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin” (Ezek. 1:1-2)—makes no sense on its face.  In his book The War of the Calendars During the Second Temple Period (Heb.) (Tel-Aviv, 1993), p. 75, Michael Chyutin examines that date along with others mentioned in Ezekiel and suggests they be explained by relating them to the solar calendar through the metonic cycle: “The beginning of Ezekiel’s prophecy (1:1), if synchronized with the solar calendar, was on Shavuot Eve (the fourteenth of the third month) or on the festival of Shavuot (the fifteenth of the month), as the members of the Qumran sect believed.  But “the members of the Qumran sect” a common but erroneous term invented by scholars, are none other than “the Zadokite priests and the men of their covenant,” whose writings were found in 930 scroll fragments in eleven caves at Qumran and Masada and in the Cairo Genizah.  As noted, all of the scrolls are sacred scriptures and their writers referred to themselves as the “Zadokite priests and the men of their covenant.”

            It is entirely possible that what gave rise in Ezekiel’s consciousness to the vision of the chariot in the heavenly sanctuary was the cognitive dissonance between his recollection of Shavuot, the central priestly festival, in all its splendor, and the reality of the Temple’s destruction and its aftermath that he saw all around him.  On the one hand was the holiday etched in his memory—the festival of the covenant, the day on which that covenant was entered into, and the day of testimony regarding the revelation of the written Torah.  It had been celebrated with great pomp at the Temple in Jerusalem, in the presence of the pilgrims who had come to Jerusalem with the first fruits of their wheat harvest and with festive Brachot by the priests.  On the other hand were the bitter reality of the destruction of the Temple and of Jerusalem (described in all their horror by Ezekiel’s contemporary, the prophet Jeremiah, in the Book of Lamentations) and the overwhelming experience of exile and the profound sadness felt by the exiled priest-prophet on the once-joyous day in the midst of the third month—a day on which mourning was forbidden but that nonetheless had been transformed into a day of mourning among the exiles in Babylonia.

            Some two thousand years later, a similar conjoining of terrible destruction with a festival on which mourning was forbidden led to the revelatory episode experienced by R. Joseph Karo’s circle of kabbalists in Adrianopolis on Shavuot night of 1533.  On that occasion, as they were engaged in a tiqqun leil shavu`ot in the Zoharic tradition, they received the bitter news that their colleague, the messianic kabbalist Solomon Malkho, had been burned at the stake.  Malkho was born a converso in 1500 and lived as a Christian until his twenties, attaining a prominent position in the Portuguese court.  He then publicly returned to his Judaism, choosing the name Malkho (“his king”) on the basis of 2 Sam. 22:51—“[God/Aloah  is a] tower of victory to His king [malko] [and] deals graciously with His anointed [meshiho; His messiah]”—and sought to advance a political messianic movement.  His was condemned by the Inquisition and burned at the stake in Mantua in November 1532.  Malkho’s attempt to work for redemption through political means engendered hope and inspired confidence in the generation that had been expelled from Spain and Portugal—he had been, after all, an officer in the Portuguese court—and the news of his death, which did not reach Adrianopolis until Shavuot night, 1533, embodied the loss of that hope. The news produced an extreme disparity between the intense joy of the festival of renewing the covenant and receiving the Torah—a joy felt by those participating in the tiqqun leil shavu`ot—and the no less intense mourning over the terrible death of the last messianic kabbalist, a man who embodied a realistic hope for redemption during the first third of the sixteenth century.  Public expression of that mourning was forbidden on the sacred festival, and the clash between the two emotions aroused within R. Joseph’s Karo’s consciousness the voice of the exiled daughter of Zion crying out in the Book of Lamentations.  She appeared to him on the festival night in the image of the Torah / Shekhinah / diadem / Mishnah and, in a voice emanating from his throat and speaking in first-person feminine, spoke dramatically to him and his colleagues of the destruction recounted in the Book of Lamentations and the redemption associated with the encounter at Sinai:

Fortunate are you and fortunate are they who bore you…. For you set your mind to adorn me on this night, after many years since my diadem fell from my head and during which there has been none to comfort me; I was cast in the dust, grasping refuse heaps.  But now you have restored the diadem to its former [glory/Kavod] …. And you have gained the merit to be of the king’s palace; and the sound of your Torah-learning and the breath of your mouth have risen before the Kadosh One Baruched Be He, splitting several Firmament and several atmospheres in order to rise [there]. And angels were hushed, seraphs fell silent, and [heavenly] beasts stood still, as the entire heavenly host and the Kadosh One Baruched Be He heard your voice…. Now I, the Mishnah, have come to speak to you…. And by your hands I have been exalted this night…and you have been bonded to the Lord/YaHuWaH and He is happy with you.   And so, my children, be strong and of good courage and rejoice in my love, my Torah, and my awe…. Be strong and of good courage and rejoice, my children and friends; do not allow the study to cease…. Therefore stand on your feet and exalt me and say aloud, as on the Day of Atonement, “Baruched be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever,” and we said “Baruched be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and ever,” as we were commanded.  He again said “Fortunate are you my sons, return to your studies and do not stop for [even] a minute, and go up to the Land of Israel…. And know that you are among those who go up…and you are bonded with me, and a line of kindness is extended to you.  And were the eye authorized to see it, you would see the fire surrounding this house.

            A few centuries later, a similarly stark contrast gave rise to a mystical experience powerfully expressed by S. Y. Agnon in his story “Ha-siman” (“The Sign”) first published in 1944 in the periodical Moznayim.  It was on Shavuot eve 1943 that Agnon had learned of the terrible destruction of his hometown, Buczacz, Galicia.  On the one hand, the time was one of joy at the onset of the festival of the giving of the Torah, the time of the covenant between God/Aloah  and his people, memorialized in the image of Mount Sinai aflame and flames flashing around it.  On the other hand, it was a time of mourning for the terrible devastation of the world of Torah and the annihilation, in the fires of the final destruction, of those faithful to the covenant.  Dan Laor, in a study of Agnon’s works, writes as follows[JL12] :

In mid-June 1943, the last residents of the Buczacz ghetto were liquidated, taken out to be killed in the city’s Jewish cemetery.  Around the same time, the labor camp adjacent to the city was likewise liquidated…. Jews who had hid and were found in the ghetto or in the surrounding woods were brought to the cemetery in groups and murdered there…. When the Soviets returned to the city in July 1944, fewer than one hundred survivors were to be found.

            “Ha-siman,” Agnon’s account of his vision on Shavuot night, was first published during the Second World War, in the Spring 1944 issue of Moznayim, as a one-page story.  It was republished as a longer story in 1962, and went through several editions.[5]  Agnon writes:

I made no Lament for my city and did not call for tears or for mourning over the congregation of God/Aloah  whom the enemy had wiped out.  The day when we heard the news of the city and its dead was the afternoon before Shavuot, so I put aside my mourning for the dead because of the joy of the season when our Torah was given (p. 379).

Agnon, deep in mourning over the destruction of his hometown but required by the sanctity of the festival to set aside his mourning and to rejoice even with a broken heart, experienced cognitive dissonance.  In his story, he traverses boundaries of time and space and has a vision of the greatest Spanish-Jewish poet, Solomon Ibn Gabirol (1021 -1058), author of the azharot liturgical poem[6] for Shavuot, reviewing in verse the commandments that made up the covenant:

Once, on Shavuot night, I was sitting alone in the house of study, reciting the azharot. I heard a voice and raised my eyes. I saw a kadosh man of God/Aloah standing near me…. I returned to my book and read the commandments of God/Aloah , as was my practice every year on Shavuot night, when I would read the commandments of God/Aloah  as poetically rendered by R. Solomon, may his soul rest (from the original version in Moznayim).

The doors of the kadosh ark opened, and I saw a likeness of the form of a man standing there, his head resting between the scrolls of the Torah, and I heard a voice come forth from the ark, from between the trees of life.[7]  I bowed my head and closed my eyes, for I feared to look at the kadosh ark.  I looked into my prayer book and saw that the letters that the voice from among the scrolls was reciting were at the same time being written into my book.  The letters were the letters of the commandments of the Lord/YaHuWaH, in the order set for them by Rabbi Solomon Ibn Gabirol, may his soul rest.  Now the man whom I had first seen between the scrolls of the Torah stood before me, and his appearance was like the appearance of a king (Mintz-Hoffman ed., p. 405).

            The man who appeared before the author’s eyes is the tormented poet Solomon Ibn Gabirol, author of the azharot for Shavuot.  The author speaks to him of the festival of Shavuot, of the destruction of his hometown, of memory and forgetting; and he asks that Ibn Gabirol remember all that the enemy has destroyed and set a sign for it in the heavens.  All that can be done in the face of the terrible destruction wrought by human beings, and of the annihilation and oblivion associated with it, is to leave a sign in the heavens, in eternity, in poetry, story and memory.  Memory is the metamorphosis of annihilation into eternity, of oblivion into written testimony; and the story or the poem effects the transformation in which loss and annihilation on earth (lethe in Greek) become eternal heavenly existence (alethea) and death becomes immortality and eternal covenant:

Rabbi Solomon said, “I’ll make a sign, so I won’t forget the name of your town.” …Once more a voice was heard, the sound of rhyme…. And he said, “Baruched among cities is the city Buczacz,” and he went on composing a poem based on the seven letters of my town’s name, a rhymed poem in faithful verse.  My soul went out of me, and I forgot six lines of the town’s song (from the original version in Moznayim).

He did not speak to me by word of mouth, but his thought was engraved into mine, his kadosh thought into mine.  Every word he said was carved into the forms of letters, and the letters joined together into words, and the words formed what he had to say.  These are the things as I remember them, word for word (Mintz-Hoffman ed., p. 405).

Once more he moved his lips.  I turned my ear and heard him recite a poem, each line of which began with one of the letters of the name of my town.  And so I knew that the sign the poet made for my town was in beautiful and rhymed verse, in the kadosh tongue.

The hairs of my flesh stood on end and my heart melted as I left my own be0ing, and it was as though I was not.  Were it not for remembering the poem, I would have been like all my townsfolk, who were lost, who had died….  But it was because of the power of the poem that my soul went out of me….  And if I don’t remember the words of the poem, for my soul left me because of its greatness, the poem sings itself in the heavens above, among the poems of the kadosh poets, the beloved of God/Aloah  (Mintz-Hoffman ed., p. 409).

*     *     *     *     *     *

            The experience of seeing divine visions on Shavuot, visions involving flashing fire among the cherubim and angels, and of hearing the heavenly voices of angels or the Kadosh Spirit, is an ancient tradition, mentioned in many sources: “All the people witnessed the thunder and the lightening” (Ex. 20:15); “…the heavens opened and I saw visions of God/Aloah ” (Ezek. 1:1); “You are the ones that received the law as ordained by angels” (Acts 7:53).  Midrash Exodus Rabbah 29:5 notes “The saw His glory/Kavod and heard His voice, as it is said (Dt. 5:21), The Lord/YaHuWaH our God/Aloah  has just shown us His majestic Presence.”  The festival of Shavuot, one of the three pilgrimage festivals observed in the Temple, is linked to the tradition of the winged cherubim in the Kadosh of Holies, which were shown to the pilgrims at a distance: “When Israel would go up for the pilgrimage festival, they would roll back the curtain for them and show them the cherubim, which embraced each other” (BT Yoma 54a).  Many years earlier, the heavenly model of the cherubim had been made known to Moses on Mount Sinai (Ex. 25:40) in the middle of the third month.  It was made known to David on Mount Zion (2 Chr. 1:28, 18-19), at an unknown time, and it was made known through the vision revealed to the prophet Ezekiel on Shavuot.

            As we know, the Torah reading for Shavuot tells of the encounter at Sinai.  It begins with the verse that sets the encounter in the third month (Ex. 19:1); continues with the transformation of the mountain into a sacred place that may be neither touched nor approached because of the expected divine presence (id. 12-13, 23); and it reaches its climax with the reading of the Decalogue, concluding with the verse “All the people witnessed the thunder and the lightening, the blare of the horn and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they fell back and stood at a distance” (Ex. 20:15).  The haftarah (reading from the prophets) for the holiday is the vision of Ezekiel ben Buzi the priest (chaps. 1 and 10), describing the divine visions revealed to him at the Chebar Canal, including winged animals described as cherubim and the image of the One seated upon the cherubim, linked to the description of the encounter at Sinai: “As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like coals of fire, burning like the appearance of torches; it flashed up and down among the living creatures; and there was brightness to the fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning.  And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightening” (Ezek. 1:13-14[8]). The account of the divine visions continues: “And above the Firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above (Ezek. 1:26), imagery tied to the description at the conclusion of the entry into the covenant: “And they saw the God/Aloah  of Israel: under His feet there was the likeness of a pavement of sapphire, like the very sky for purity” (Ex. 24:10).  Chapter 10 of Ezekiel, which describes a vision at the Temple in Jerusalem (id., 8:3), tells anew of the vision at the Chebar Canal, referring explicitly to the vision of the sacred beasts in Chapter 1: “I looked, and on the expanse over the heads of the cherubs, there was something like a sapphire stone; an appearance resembling a sapphire stone could be seen over them” (Ezek. 10:1).  They are referred to twice again: “the cherubs ascended; those were the creatures that I had seen by the Chebar Canal” (id. 15); “they were the same creatures that I had seen below the God/Aloah  of Israel at the Chebar Canal; so I now knew that they were cherubs” (id. 20). The divine visions shown to Ezekiel on Shavuot night, encompassing cherubim and ofanim, wings and flares, beasts and sapphire are recounted in several versions and are referred to in the Qumran texts as “The[JL13]  vision that Ezekiel saw…the light of a chariot and four creatures.”  At the beginning of the second century BCE, the priest Joshua Ben-Sira refers to it as the vision of the chariot: “It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory/Kavod, which God/Aloah showed him above the chariot of the cherubim” (Sir. 49:8).

            The account of Ezekiel’s vision of the chariot, revealed to him at the mid-point of the third month, the time of the covenant at Sinai, contains references to previous covenants and uses wording that calls to mind previous divine revelations during the third month, as recounted in Jubilees.  These references include, among others, the rainbow associated with the covenant with Noah, the flares that were part of the covenant “between the pieces” with Abraham and of the encounter at Sinai, and the block of sapphire seen in the encounter at Sinai.  The verse linking the Torah reading for Shavuot (the encounter at Sinai) with the haftarah (Ezekiel’s vision of the chariot) is one that preserves an ancient tradition tying the encounter at Sinai to the divine chariot and the angels: “God/Aloah ’s chariots are myriads upon myriads, thousands upon thousands; the Lord/YaHuWaH is among them as in Sinai in holiness” (Ps. 68:18).  The verse echoes a line in Deuteronomy: “The Lord/YaHuWaH came from Sinai; He shone upon them from Seir; He appeared from Mount Paran; and approached from Ribeboth-kodesh [mei-rivevot-qodesh; perhaps to be emended to be-merkavot-qodesh, “in kadosh chariots”], lightening flashing at them from His right” (Dt. 33:2).

            The treatment of Shavuot in the rabbinic tradition differs substantially from that in the various priestly traditions.  In the latter, the chariot of the cherubim, Ezekiel’s vision of the chariot, and various visions of God/Aloah are all associated with the encounter at Sinai, where the cherubim were revealed to Moses and he was instructed to make models of them and place them in the Kadosh of Holies.  Those various traditions regarding the cherubim and the chariot are tied, in turn, to the festival of Shavuot—the festival on which the covenant is renewed, and the Sinai experience recreated, the festival of the angels who presented the Torah to Israel at the Sinai encounter.  The rabbinic tradition, in contrast, simply declares that “One does not read the [account of the] chariot as a haftarah” (Mishnah Megillah 4:10).  The matter seems to have been in dispute, for a baraita in the Babylonian Talmud, in which the schedule of haftarot is first mentioned, notes that Ezekiel’s vision of the chariot is, in fact, read as the haftarah on Shavuot (BT Megillah 31a-b).  Pertinent to this dispute is the inclusion of the word “chariot” in the versions of chapter 1 of Ezekiel that appear in the pre-Common-Era texts of Scripture found at Qumran and in the Septuagint.  The word appears as well in the Septuagint to Ezekiel 43:3, which reads “and the vision of the chariot which I saw was like the vision which I saw at the river Chobar”[9]; the Masoretic Text, in contrast, reads “the very same vision that I had seen by the Chebar Canal.”  The version of the Scripture edited by the sages following the destruction of the Temple omits the word “chariot.”  There is a tradition that the sages wanted to exclude the entire Book of Ezekiel from the canon (BT Shabbat 13a), and that tradition, too, may be related to the book’s references to the chariot and to the priest-prophet’s clear association with the Zadokite priests.  The description in Ezekiel 45 of the fixed times of the Lord/YaHuWaH skips over the festival of Shavuot, going directly from Passover to Sukkot; but when it describes Passover as “a festival of seven days,” the Masoretic Text reads hag shevu’ot yamim.  This, too, suggests that there may have been an earlier version of the text that included the festival of Shavuot.  And despite the rabbis’ prohibition on reading Ezekiel’s vision of the chariot as the haftarah for Shavuot, synagogues have continued to do so from antiquity to this day.

*     *     *     *     *     *

            The dispute between the sages and the priests, alluded to in the bans on reading the account of the chariot as a haftarah (“the [account of the] chariot is not read as a haftarah”) and on expounding it (“the [account of the] chariot is not expounded”) is tied to the dispute between the Pharisees and the Sadducees / Boethians over the timing of the holiday.  The Sadducees and Boethians mentioned in the rabbinic tradition, known in Scripture and the Scrolls as the Zadokite priests, set a fixed day and date for the festival of the first fruits of the wheat harvest; it was Sunday, the fifteenth day of the third month.  As explained earlier, this was keyed to the fixed time for the beginning of the barley harvest and the waving of the omer-sheaf; that occurred on Sunday, the twenty-sixth day of the first month, all pursuant to the fixed solar calendar calculated in advance.  The Pharisees and the sages, on the other hand, followed a lunar calendar, either continuing to use the Hasmonean lunar calendar or else electing, after the destruction, to adopt a variable lunar calendar—a calendar differing from both the Zadokite solar calendar described earlier and from the 365¼-day Julian calendar of the Roman Empire in whose shadow they lived.  They argued that the biblical phrase “the day after the Sabbath,” mentioned three times in the account of the waving of the sheaf of barley (Lev. 23:11, 15, 16), refers not to a Sunday but to the day after the first day of Passover (Mishnah, Menahot 10:3; Sifra, Emor 10:5, 100c).  That day would always be the sixteenth of Nisan, but the day of the week on which it fell would vary from year to year, depending on when the onset of the month of Nisan—based on the sighting of the new moon—was proclaimed.  The Pharisees / sages maintained that the term “sabbath” was applied to the first day of Passover because it was a festival day on which no work was to be done; they thus disagreed with the Priests, Sadducees, Boethians, Karaites, Ethiopian Jews, and Samaritans, all of whom took the term at face value, as referring to the first Sabbath following the conclusion of the week of Passover—that is, the fourth Sabbath of the quarter, falling invariably on the twenty-fifth of Nisan.  On the Sunday that followed it, the twenty-sixth of Nisan, the barley harvest began.  The Pharisees and sages rejected that date, which was based on the understanding that “the day after the Sabbath” referred to the Sunday following the conclusion of Passover and declined to accept the ancient date for Shavuot (15 Sivan) that followed from it in the priestly tradition.  They briefly quoted the views of their rivals, the Boethians, regarding the festival of Shavuot, which they declined even to mention by name, referring to it, instead, as Atseret: “the sheaf is not harvested at the conclusion of the festival day” (Tosefta, Menahot 10b; 23[JL14]  p. 528); “Atseret follows the Sabbath.”  They mounted a polemic against that view, but they avoided any mention of the fixed day for the barley harvest, the twenty-sixth of the first month, on which the time for the first fruits of the wheat harvest—the fifteenth of the third month—was dependent.  Mishnah Bikkurim is silent with respect to the time for the first fruits of the wheat harvest, dealing only with the times for the first fruits that are not associated with a particular day.  The Book of Jubilees, which attests to the antiquity of the first-fruits festival, states expressly that “…in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram made a feast of the firstfruits of the harvest of grain.  And he offered up a new sacrifice upon the altar, the firstfruits of the [produce[JL15] ]…” (Jub. 15:1-2).  MMT, cited above, likewise states explicitly: “of the third month…. On the fifteenth of it: Feast of Weeks” (Vermes, p. 221-222).

*     *     *     *     *     *

            The sages thus did all they could to suppress the holiday’s name, to expunge its ancient date, and to ban the various pre-Common-Era priestly traditions pertinent to the holiday, most notably the giving of the Torah and revelation of the chariot, the entry into and renewal of the covenant, and the Berachah by the priests and Ezekiel’s vision at the time of the covenant at Sinai.  That they did so is certainly tied to the fact that some of these traditions were adopted by the Jewish-Christian community that was active in Jerusalem during the first century CE and that set Shavuot—the day after the conclusion of the seven weeks that began with the waving of the sheaf of barley, that is, the fiftieth day (Pentecost in Greek)—as the time when the Kadosh Spirit was revealed in stormy sounds and fiery flares:

When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place.  And suddenly from heaven there came a sound like the rush of a violent wind, and it filled the entire house where they were sitting.  Divided tongues, as of fire, appeared among them, and a tongue rested on each of them.  All of them were filled with the Kadosh Spirit and began to speak in other languages, as the Spirit gave them ability (Acts 2:1-4).

            The festival of Shavuot became transformed into a foundational holiday of the Jewish-Christian community, the day on which the Kadosh Spirit, revealed in tongues of fire, came to rest on its members, who began to speak in tongues. The festival always fell on a Sunday at the mid-point of the third month, fifty days after Master Yahushua’s resurrection on Easter, likewise a Sunday; and the new Jewish-Christian community saw in it a sort of renewal of the covenant with them, tied to the prophecy of Joel (3:1).  They also saw the descent of the Kadosh Spirit as evidence of the fulfillment of Master Yahushua’s promise that his spirit would dwell on his church.  Shavuot thus became the festival of the Kadosh Spirit’s descent on the Sunday at the mid-point of the third month, observed by the Jewish-Christian community during the thirties of the first century CE, and it remained the holiday of the founding of the church, celebrated with great pomp, as Pentecost, from then until today.  Accounts of its celebration, including the singing of Halleluiah and of “Veni Creator” (“Come, Creator Spirit”) in honor of the Kadosh Spirit can be found in the writings of late-fourth-century pilgrims.  Needless to say, this glorification of Shavuot among the Jewish Christians as the festival of the church did not enhance the standing of the mystical-priestly festival among the sages, and it is nearly certain that it contributed substantially to the holiday’s rejection within the Jewish community that came to be led by the tanna’im in the years following the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.  It may well be that these developments likewise influenced the liturgical treatment by the tanna’im of the chariot tradition as related to Shavuot.

            According to tannaitic tradition, the Song of Songs was spoken at the Sinai encounter, which was interpreted, in midrash and by mystics, as involving the marriage covenant and mystical union between the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and the community of Israel; Shavuot thus comes to be seen as the wedding day.  The link between Shavuot and a covenant of marriage appears in various contexts within the rabbinic tradition; one is that of the encounter at Sinai: “The Lord/YaHuWaH came from Sinai—to greet Israel, in the manner of a bridegroom who goes forth to greet the bride” (Mekhilta de-rabbi yishma’el, Parashat ba-hodesh ha-shelishi, sec. 3).

            A second context in which the connection is drawn is that of the nuptials described in the Song of Songs, taken to refer to the bridegroom-Torah giver and his bride, the community of Israel.  The talmudist Saul Lieberman noted a mystical interpretation of the Song of Songs in the tannaitic tradition that tied it to the tradition of the cherubim and the chariot, and he cited a later version of that interpretation based on the comments of the medieval kabbalist R. Joshua Ibn Shuib: “For the words of this song are extremely obscure and impenetrable and it therefore was considered to be kadosh of holies, for all its words are mysteries of the chariot…. For the bridegroom is the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and the bride is the community of Israel…. And by received tradition these are hidden matters that one may not even think about; they are the supernal chariot higher than Ezekiel’s chariot and they are the sefirot [the kabbalistic divine emanations].”  According to the tradition in the Babylonian Talmud, the pilgrims would be shown the cherubim “which embraced each other” on the ark-cover in the Kadosh of Holies, and it was said that “their mutual affection was like that of male and female” (BT Yoma 54a).

            The Zohar, written in late-thirteenth-century Spain in the wake of the terrible destruction wrought by the Crusades on the Ashkenazi communities between 1096 and 1296, likewise associates Shavuot, the covenant festival, with the covenant of marriage—in this instance, the celestial nuptials between God/Aloah  as bridegroom and the Shekhinah as bride.  It associates the custom of staying awake all night on Shavuot, referred to in various midrashic sources, with the need to prepare the bride for entry into the marriage canopy: “The early pious ones would not sleep that night and would engage in Torah study, saying: Let us come and acquire a kadosh inheritance for ourselves and our children in both worlds.  When the initiates gathered and joined him that night, R. Simeon said: Let us go and prepare the bridal jewels so she may be found tomorrow bejeweled and prepared as befits the King” (Zohar, part 3, 98a).  As noted earlier, the Zohar associates Shavuot with the idra rabba, the occasion on which R. Simeon bar Yohai and his students convened, understood as the occasion for receiving the Torah anew and as a nuptial festival.  In the Zohar, Shavuot night is called “the night of the bride uniting with her husband,” “the tiqqun leil shavu`ot” (the “repair” [of the fabric of the world] on Shavuot night) (Zohar, part 1, 8a-9a; part 2, 98a).  Implicit in that conception of the night is the hope for renewal of the covenant—a new revelation of the heavenly Written Torah along with the beginning of redemption, linked to the Oral Torah, the Shekhinah, and the bride—with the nation that had violated the covenant and was exiled from its land for hundreds and thousands of years.

            The late thirteenth century, the end of the Crusades, was a time when destruction and annihilation had been visited upon many Jewish communities in Ashkenaz and weighty questions were being raised about the nature of the oath and covenant between God/Aloah  and his people, who were suffering such devastating persecution.  It was in that context that the Zohar was written, seeking to forge a new unity between the memory of the Written Torah (God/Aloah , the bridegroom) and the creative memory of the Oral Torah (the bride, the community of Israel).  The author of the Zohar, R. Moses de Leon, wrote the following account of a tiqqun leil shavu`ot, in which the ten martyrs were transformed from sages who had died for the sanctification of God/Aloah ’s name in the time of the tanna’im into beings enjoying eternal life one thousand years later, thanks to the traversal of boundaries of time and space within the tradition of the Zohar:

The mystery of the festival of Shavuot….The ancient ones, of Baruched memory, the pillars of the world who knew how to draw down from on high the grace/unmerited Favor that would enable them to go without sleep on these two nights of Shavuot, spend the entire night reading from the Torah, the Prophets and the Writings and then skip through the Talmud and aggadot [non-halakhic rabbinic texts] and read from the mysteries of the Torah until morning light, continuing their fathers’ traditions…. And at those times [that is, the days of counting the omer—R. E.] the bride would adorn herself and enter the region on high, and on that fiftieth night, this night devoted to God/Aloah , uniting the Written Torah with the Oral Torah, her devoted children on earth would escort her into the wedding canopy.  And it is listed and written in the book of memories that they would sing joyfully on the night of the bride’s rejoicing…. And they should not, therefore give[JL16]  ransom for their souls through the singing of Torah, for they are listed before God/Aloah …and God/Aloah  will listen and heed and inscribe their memory before him with joy” (MS Schocken 14, 87a-b, quoted in Y. D. Yahalom, “Sidrei tiqqunim,” in Alei ayinFestschrift for S. Z. Schocken on his Seventieth Birthday [Jerusalem, 1948-1952], p. 126).

            The mystical tradition shaped Shavuot night into a time of preparation for the kadosh union to take place on the festival—the nuptial day for heaven and earth, God/Aloah  and His people, bridegroom and bride, Written Torah and Oral Torah, the sefirah of tif’eret (glory) and the sefirah of malkhut (sovereignty), the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and the Shekhinah (that is, the masculine and feminine aspects of divinity), all symbolized by the embracing cherubim that the pilgrims coming to observe the festival were allowed to observe from afar (BT Yoma 54a-b).  This tradition generated a wealth of mystical symbols for the idea of king’s coupling with his consort (matronita) or the union between the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and His Shekhinah—that is, the covenant between the bridegroom as giver of the Torah and the bride (the congregation of Israel) as receiver of the eternal Torah who perpetuates and continues to form it.  The mystical tradition treats these images of union and coupling between “the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and His Shekhinah” in thousands of pages of kabbalistic literature and liturgical poems and sees the souls of Jewish men and women as the fruit of this mystical union.  That tradition even formulated wording for a ketubbah (marriage contract) between “the bridegroom, the Kadosh One Baruched Be He” and the “bride, the virgin Israel” (Gershom Scholem, Pirqei yesod be-havanat ha-qabbalah u-semalehah [Jerusalem, 1976], p. 132) and described ceremonies in which that ketubbah was read as part of the tiqqun leil shavu`ot.

            The mystical tradition recounts various occasions on which revelations of the Kadosh Spirit took place on Shavuot, as the passages telling of the encounter at Sinai or Ezekiel’s vision of the Chariot were read.  They include, in chronological order:

  • The idra rabba described in the Zohar at the end of the thirteenth century.
  • The revelation of the Shekhinah / Mishnah in R. Joseph Karo’s circle during the first third of the sixteenth century, which culminated in their immigration to the Land of Israel in 1535 and the establishment of the kabbalistic settlement in Safed.  These events are described in the introduction to Karo’s Maggid meisharim and in Shenei luhot ha-berit by R. Isaiah Leib Horowitz, known as the kadosh Shelah, in the chapter titled “Masekhet shevu`ot”.
  • The Kadosh Spirit’s alighting on Nathan of Gaza on Shavuot night 1665.  When he lost consciousness, Nathan began to prophesy in bizarre voices that his listeners interpreted to foretell the renewal of the covenant and the ascent to sovereignty of the king messiah Shabbetai Zevi, who would lead his nation to redemption, just as had Moses.

            That last episode decisively influenced the growth of the Sabbatean movement during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as detailed in Gershom Scholem’s Shabbetai zevi ve-ha-tenu`ah ha-shabta’it bi-yemei hayyav (Tel-Aviv, 1967), vol. 1, pp. 177-178) and Mehqarei shabta’ut (ed. Yehuda Liebes) (Tel-Aviv, 1992), pp. 310-320.  While there is disagreement over who wrote the account of the vision and some see it as pseudepigraphal, there is no dispute about its link to Nathan’s vision on Shavuot, which begins with a sentence that echoes other ceremonies from the Book of Ezekiel:

Now, it was Shavuot night and I was studying with the initiates in my home in Gaza.  After midnight, I heard a voice from behind the ark curtain speaking to me [and saying]: Arise, and go to the outer courtyard, and I will speak with you there.  My heart was stirred, and I went out to the courtyard, where I saw a man wearing a linen tunic; his appearance was that of a very awesome angel of God/Aloah  and he said to me… (id., p. 310).

            Another appearance of the Kadosh Spirit during the month of Sivan (the third month) took place in Italy, at the end of the first third of the eighteenth century, among the followers of R. Moses Hayyim Luzzatto.  On that occasion, which was influenced by R. Joseph Karo’s Shavuot-night vision, an angel-maggid appeared to Luzzatto and dictated heavenly Torah to him in a book titled Zohar teniyya (“Second Zohar”) or Adir ba-marom.  Luzzatto describes the beginning of the revelation as follows:

On the new moon of Sivan 5487 (1727), while I was performing a certain unification ritual, I nodded off and when I awoke, I heard a voice saying: “I have come down to reveal hidden secrets of the Kadosh King.”  I arose shaking a bit, but then gained my strength, but the voice did not cease, and told the mystery that it told…. Thereafter, on a certain day, it revealed to me that it was a maggid sent from heaven…and that while I did not see it, I would hear its voice speaking from my mouth (Iggerot moshe hayyim luzato u-venei doro, ed. Simon Ginsburg [Tel-Aviv 1937], p. 39).

Luzzatto here describes not only his own angel-maggid but also R. Joseph Karo’s angel-maggid, which appeared on Shavuot night as well, and his account seems to echo in that of the wondrous man in Agnon’s Shavuot-night vision quoted earlier. 

            The mystical innovation in the kabbalistic tradition is that the unification takes place between, on the one hand, God/Aloah , the One Who establishes the eternal covenant, the Kadosh One Baruched Be He, the sefirah of tif’eret (glory/Kavod) and the Written Torah, and, on the other hand, the Shekhinah, the community of Israel, the party entering into the covenant, the sefirah of malkhut (sovereignty), and the Oral Torah.  The kabbalists who participated in covenant-renewal rituals called “tiqqun leil shavu`ot” or “yihud qudsha berikh hu u-shekhinteih” (unification of the Kadosh One Baruched Be He and His Shekhinah) experienced, from time to time, a renewal of the covenant in the form of a divine voice speaking in the spirit of such persons as the author of the Zohar, R. Joseph Karo, Nathan of Gaza, Moses Hayyim Luzzatto, or S. Y. Agnon.  Some of them identified with Moses and internalized his image (the author of the Zohar, Karo, Luzzatto, the Seer of Lublin), while others identified with other written traditions (Malkho, Nathan, Agnon); but in all cases, the divine revelation is preceded by a written tradition, which undergoes transformation and reincarnation in the spirit of the person who experiences the new vision in his mind’s ear, “seeing the voices.”

            As a practical matter, it was the reading of the biblical text that triggered these episodes.  The text describes the entry into the covenant at Sinai, before the building of the Tabernacle, and its renewal in Ezekiel’s vision, in the course of the destruction of the First Temple, and it was read loudly in kabbalistic circles during the tiqqun leil shavu`ot.  That reading prompted a mystical awakening in which the voice of the Shekhinah was heard as a voice speaking from above the cover atop the tablets of the covenant or a voice calling for a return to the Land of Israel as it spoke from the mouth of the person reading from Scripture in the Zoharic tradition about the mystical nuptials.  The Shekhinah is described as an angel oscillating between male and female, in a manner resembling the accounts of the cherubim and kadosh beasts as bisexual entities in the visions of Ezekiel and of R. Joseph Karo.  The voice of the angel-maggid therefore is sometimes heard as a qol midabber (addressing voice), as in the verse (Num. 7:89) “When Moses went into the Tent of Meeting to speak with Him, he would hear the Voice addressing him from above the cover that was on top of the Ark of the Pact between the two cherubim; thus He spoke to him”; at other times, it is heard as the voice of the exiled daughter of Zion; and at still other times as a voice described in terms of “Hark! My beloved knocks” (Song 5:2) or “Who announce[s] what is true [maggid meisharim]” (Isa. 45:19).  As noted, an event involving renewal of the covenant was experienced by R. Joseph Karo, the author of Maggid meisharim, in Adrianopolis on Shavuot night 1533 and led him and his colleagues to immigrate to the Land of Israel in 1535 and establish the community of kabbalists in Safed.  The Safed community, which devoted its time to hastening the redemption and uniting the Shekhinah with the Kadosh One Baruched Be He so as to renew the covenant at Sinai, spread kabbalistic-messianic awareness throughout the Jewish world and contributed decisively to fostering the yearning for Zion and the return to the Land of Israel.

            R. Simeon bar Yohai’s final words in the Zohar, uttered as he dies, are “There the Lord/YaHuWaH ordained  Berachah, everlasting life” (Ps. 133:3), a sentence linked to the eternal promise warranted to those who walk in the paths of righteousness, as declared by Jeremiah, the priest-prophet and advocate of justice: “Then only will I let you dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers for all time” (Jer. 7:7).  Bound up with these words are the array of ideas related to Shavuot discussed above: the eternal covenant or oath related to the eternity of the divine promise and dependent on maintaining the eternal cycles of justice associated with the sacred fixed times and with the seven-based cycles of rest that have gone on from Sinai to this very day of Shavuot.  These are sacred biblical cycles of memory, knowledge, justice and truth, cycles of the covenant and the Berachah in their varied manifestations over the course of history and in the pages of books.  The verse in Jeremiah just quoted ends with the words “for all time” (ad olam), and “Ad olam” (“Forevermore”) is the title of the story with which S. Y. Agnon ends the volume of his works entitled Ha-esh ve-ha-ezim.  In the final pages of the volume, Agnon summons up the memory of the witnesses to the covenant who call up from the depths of oblivion that which was engraved on the tablets and recall, against all odds, what had been forgotten:

How great is the true writer…who does not abandon his work even when the sword of death hangs over his neck, who writes with his very blood, in his soul’s own script, what his eyes have seen!… So he would sit and discover new things which had been unknown to all the learned men of the ages until he came and revealed them.  And since there were many things and learning is endless and there is much to discover and investigate and understand, he did not put his work aside and did not leave his place and he remained there forevermore.[10]


[1] Translated from the Hebrew by Joel Linsider.  Except as noted below and elsewhere in the article, translations from primary sources and Hebrew secondary materials are by the present translator, as are all footnotes. Except as otherwise noted, the following translations of ancient texts have been used:

Hebrew Bible: New Jewish Publication Society Tanakh (NJPS), copyright © 1985, 1999 by the Jewish Publication Society. 

Apocrypha and New Testament: New Revised Standard Version Bible, copyright © 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.

Jubilees: translation by O. S. Wintermute, in James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Charlesworth) (New York: Doubleday, 1985), vol. 2, pp. 35-142.

1 Enoch: 1 Enoch, translated by Ephraim Isaac, in Charlesworth, vol. 1, pp. 5-90.

Qumran literature (Dead Sea Scrolls): Geza Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (New York and London: Penguin Books, 1997 [1962]) (referred to as Vermes) or Florentino García Martínez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Leiden: Brill and Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 2000) (referred to as DSSSE).

[2] The Shekhinah refers variously to God’s presence, often personified in feminine form, or to the feminine qualities within God, again often personified as a separate entity.

[3] The Hebrew translated “stay pure” is ve-qidashtem.  Literally, it means “sanctify yourselves,” but qiddushin also refers to marriage (more specifically, betrothal).

[4] Ketiv refers to the Masoretic written consonantal text; it is distinguished from the qeri, the text as vocalized and read.

[5] An English translation by Arthur Green was first published in Response 19 (1973), pp. 5-31 and was reprinted in David Roskies, ed., The Literature of Destruction: The Jewish Response to Catastrophe (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1988), pp. 585-604 and in S. Y. Agnon, A Book That Was Lost and Other Stories, ed. with introductions by Alan Mintz and Anne Golomb Hoffman (New York: Schocken Books, 1995), pp. 378-409.  The extracts that follow are variously from the original edition in Moznayim (translated by the present translator) and from the Green translation of the expanded story (with page references to the Mintz-Hoffman edition).  The Hebrew original appears in Ha-esh ve-ha-ezim, vol. 8 of Kol sippurav shel shmu’el yosef agnon.  The story “Forevermore,” quoted from at the end of this article, is the final story in that volume; it is followed by the afterword from which the second epigraph to this article is taken.

[6] Azharot (lit., admonitions) are a genre of liturgical poems written for Shavuot, in which the 613 commandments are reviewed in verse.

[7] “Trees of life” is the term used for the staffs on which a Torah scroll is wound.

[8] The translation of these verses, and the one next quoted (Ezek. 1:16) are from the Old Jewish Publication Society translation (OJPS), The Holy Scriptures (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1917).

[9] English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible: The Translation of the Greek Old Testament Scriptures, Including the Apocrypha. Compiled from the Translation by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton 1851, at http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Jezekiel/index.htm.

[10]  S. Y. Agnon, “Forevermore,” trans. from the Heb. by Joel Blocker, revised by Robert Alter, in Robert Alter, ed., Modern Hebrew Literature (New York: Behrman House, 1975), pp. 248-249).  The Hebrew original is the concluding story in Ha-esh ve-ha-ezim.


 [JL1]This is the passage as it appears in Vermes. It differs in some respects from the Hebrew, but the version in DSSSE is much more different.

 [JL2]The quotation doesn’t link the events to Shavuot. Should that be further explained?

 [JL3]I added this citation because it seems to be the only one that speaks of Seraiah’s exile.

 [JL4]Should this be Monday, so that the yom pagu`a is Tuesday and then the next month can begin, as always, on Wednesday? Since 91 is a multiple of 7, a 91-day period beginning on a Wednesday will end on a Tuesday—or am I misunderstanding something?

 [JL5]I could find  no reference to paths of light or darkness in either the Vermes or DSSSE version of Pesher Habakkuk. Also, the Hebrew citations are שם, but I’m not sure what the reference is to, so I left out most of the references.

 [JL6]I assumed they maintained both interpretations side by side, and added this clause to clarify that.

 [JL7]This citation appears in the Hebrew but the verse—which mentions “covenant” but not “oath”—isn’t quoted.

 [JL8]I could find this text neither in Vermes nor in DSSSE; what is its 4Q citation?

 [JL9]It’s not clear what constitute the five.  Is it (1) Sabbaths; (2) fixed times; (3) sabbatical years; (4) jubilees; and (5) seven species?

 [JL10]Hebrew reads 75:4, but in Charlesworth it seems to be v. 3.

 [JL11]Hebrew reads Q2854, but this seems to be right.

 [JL12]Should this be cited?

 [JL13]There was no citation, so I couldn’t find the published translation; I translated the line myself.

 [JL14]I’ve copied this as it appears, but I’m not sure what “23” and “p. 528” refer to.

 [JL15]Charlesworth reads “food.”

 [JL16]I wasn’t sure of the meaning here; I’m not aware of a published English translation of the text.

The book of Jubilees is the earliest source to connect Shavuot to the Sinai covenant

by Prof.Michael Segal

The holiday of Shavuot is unique among the biblical festivals in two respects. First, it is the only holiday without its own set date in any calendar; its celebration is determined by counting from another event (the bringing of the omer or wave offering) whose date is also ambiguous (Lev 23:15-16; Deut 16:9). Second, it is the only holiday which has no historical context or event explicitly associated with the origins of its observance.[1] In rabbinic literature, by contrast, the holiday is anchored both calendrically, on the sixth of Sivan, and historically as a celebration of matan Torah, the giving of the Torah. When and how did these ideas develop?

The earliest source for a set date for the festival and its connection to the Sinaitic revelation, is Jubilees, a Jewish work composed in the second century BCE. The entire book is presented as a revelation to Moses on Mt. Sinai, through an angelic intermediary referred to as the Angel of Presence (מלאך הפנים).

This book, preserved in about 15 fragmentary copies in the Dead Sea scrolls,[2] presents a rewriting of Genesis and Exodus, enriching them with additional material, often reflecting both halachic and/or chronological concerns. Legal passages are added to the patriarchal narratives, and all of the events in these books are dated according to a heptadic (based on the number seven) chronological framework of years, “weeks” of years, and “jubilees” = 49 years.

The Date of Shavuot and the Meaning of “The Day after Shabbat”

The date for Shavuot in Jubilees—the date the holiday was celebrated in the Qumran community—is the 15th of the third month, Sivan, nine days later than the rabbinic practice. In accordance with the 364 day solar calendar used in Jubilees (see my TABS essay, “The Jewish Calendar of Jubilees” for details), the holiday fell on Sunday every year. This date for the Shavuot festival reflects a specific reading of the biblical text, which sheds light on a well-known passage from rabbinic literature.

Leviticus 23:15 assigns the beginning of the seven-week period that culminates in the festival of first-fruits to the day of bringing of the wave offering (omer), specified to take place on ממחרת השבת, the day after “Shabbat” (Lev 23:11). The precise identification of this day was the subject of intense polemics between Jewish groups in the late Second Temple period, who debated how to interpret the term “Shabbat.” As related in rabbinic literature, the Pharisees interpreted the term Shabbat to refer to the first day of the Matzot festival, and thus “the day after Shabbat” to refer to its second day. The Boethusians (a Second Temple sectarian group referred to in rabbinic sources, often disagreeing with the Pharisees on issues of calendar), on the other hand, took Shabbat, as in the vast majority of instances throughout the Bible, to refer to the weekly Shabbat (= Saturday). According to this, “the day after Shabbat” would refer to a Sunday.[3]

According to the Jubilees calendar, if we count seven weeks back from the 15th of the 3rd month, we arrive at Sunday, the 26th of the 1st month, as the day of the wave-offering. This date is the first Sunday following the seven-day Matzot festival (1/15–21), and reflects a literal translation of the expression “the day after Shabbat.” The count begins after the conclusion of the matzot festival since the description of this event follows the completion of the description of the previous festival (Lev 23:5-8).

Scholars debate whether the position attributed to the Boethusians is identical to that found in Jubilees and Qumran, since it is unclear whether they understood the “morrow after Shabbat” as a reference to the Sunday immediately following the matzot festival (as in Jubilees) or the one during the festival itself (as the Samaritans and Karaites do).[4] Both interpretations are fundamentally different from the rabbis, who understood that word “Shabbat” in “the day after Shabbat” as “festival,” specifically the first day of the festival.[5]

Jacob Celebrates Shavuot

In addition to having an exact date for Shavuot, Jubilees also adds an important theme to the holiday, the theme of covenant. This can be seen by looking at what transpires on Shavuot in the book—indeed, a major characteristic of Jubilees as it rewrites sections of Genesis and Exodus is the manner in which it anchors laws that only appear later in the Torah. In Jubilees 44, the date of Shavuot can be determined based upon the chronological data in the rewritten account of Jacob’s descent to Egypt (cf. Gen 46):

44:1 Israel set out from Hebron, from his house, on the first of the third month. He went by way of the well of the oath and offered a sacrifice to the Almighty YHWH of his father Isaac on the seventh of this month. 44:2 When Jacob remembered the dream that he had seen in Bethel, he was afraid to go down to Egypt. 44:3 But as he was thinking about sending word to Joseph that he should come to him and that he would not go down, he remained there for seven days on the chance that he would see a vision (about) whether he should remain or go down. 44:4 He celebrated the harvest festival—the first fruits of grain—with old grain because in all the land of Canaan there was not even a handful of seed in the land since the famine affected all the animals, the cattle, the birds, and mankind as well. 44:5 On the sixteenth the YaHuWaH appeared to him and said to him: ‘Jacob, Jacob’…

The passage opens at the beginning of the third month. Following Jacob’s arrival in Beersheba on the seventh of the third month, he remained there for seven days hoping to receive a vision about whether he should indeed go down to Egypt. This seven-day period is followed by “the harvest festival – the firstfruits of grain” in v. 4, immediately followed by the divine revelation on the 16th (v. 5). Thus, the “harvest festival” fell on the 15th of the month, after the seven-day sojourn (until the 14th) and immediately prior to the revelation on the 16th.

Abram’s Shavuot Revelation

Similarly, Abraham received the revelation concerning circumcision in “the middle of the third month”: “During the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee —in the third month, in the middle of the month—Abram celebrated the festival of the first fruits of the wheat harvest” (15:1). The celebration of this festival on the 15th of the month corresponds to the dates of the festivals of Matzot and Sukkot, according to the Torah, which take place on the 15th of the first and seventh months respectively.

Jubilees dates additional events to the 15th of the 3rd month:

a. 14:10 – covenant between the pieces (ברית בין הבתרים)
b. 16:13 – birth of Isaac (fulfillment of promise in chapter 15)
c. 29:7 – covenant with Laban

Thus, every significant event in Genesis that is associated with covenant is explicitly associated with the date of the “festival of harvest.”[6]

Shavuot and the Covenant with Noah

An extended passage following the flood narrative explicitly expresses the conception of Shavuot as the festival of covenant. The story concludes with a covenant between Noah and The Almighty YHWH in which He commits to never again destroy humanity through a Flood, while Noah and his sons swear not to consume the blood of animate beings:

6:17 For this reason it has been ordained and written on the heavenly tablets that they should celebrate the festival of weeks during this month—once a year—to renew the covenant each and every year.

The purpose of the annual celebration of Shavuot is to renew the covenant between The Almighty Creator and Israel,[7] a theme decidedly similar to the celebration of matan Torah found in rabbinic sources. However, there is a fundamental difference between the two conceptions.

Shavuot as a Covenant Going Back to the Time of Creation

According to Jubilees, the national covenant between The Almighty YaHuWaH and Israel was not first established at Sinai, but existed from the dawn of time, when Israel was already chosen as God’s nation in the first week of creation (2:19–21):[8]

19 ויאמר לנו הנה אני מבדיל לי]
עם בתווך עממי ו[שבתו הם וקדשתי אתם לי לעם וברכתים והיו עמי והייתי לאלהיהם] 20 ובחר בזרע יעקב ב[כל מאשר ראיתי וכתבתי אתו לי לבן בכור וקדשת אתו לי] לעולם ועד ואת היום ה[שביעי אגיד להם לשובתם בומכל 21 כאשר ברכם וקדשם לו לעם סגולה]
מכל הגוים ולהיות יחד[ עמנו שובתים

1He said to us: “I will now separate for myself] a people among my nations. And [they will keep Sabbath. I will sanctify them as my people, and I will bless them. They will be my people and I will be their Eloah.”] 20And he chose the descendants of Jacob among [all of those whom I have seen. I have recorded them as my first-born son and have sanctified them for myself] for all the age(s) of eternity. The [seventh] day [I will tell them so that they may keep Sabbath on it from everything, 21 as he blessed them and sanctified them for himself as a special people] out of all the nations and to be [keeping Sabbath] together [with us.

This accords with a deterministic, dualistic worldview expressed in a number of passages throughout Jubilees, according to which the status of Israel and the nations (and their heavenly angelic counterparts) was established by our Creator the Almighty YHWH as an integral part of the cosmos. Although Israel did not exist until over twenty generations later, its special position was determined in advance.

The existence of the covenant from the time of creation necessitated the existence of commandments, which are the stipulations of this covenant, and thus Jubilees posits that many commandments were already given prior to Mount Sinai. Similarly, the covenant festival was relevant from the dawn of time as well: first observed by angelic beings in heaven from creation,[9] until the time of Noah when it was first observed by human beings. It was then celebrated off and on until it was commanded at Mount Sinai:

6:18 This entire festival had been celebrated in heaven from the time of creation until the lifetime of Noah—for 26 jubilees and five weeks of years [=1309]. Then Noah and his sons kept it for seven jubilees and one week of years until Noah’s death [=350 years]. From the day of Noah’s death his sons corrupted (it) until Abraham’s lifetime and were eating blood. 6:19 Abraham alone kept (it), and his sons Isaac and Jacob kept it until your lifetime. During your lifetime the Israelites had forgotten (it) until I renewed (it) for them at this mountain.

חג השבועת in Jubilees thus commemorates this eternal covenant, which began in the first week of history and was renewed over time. The Sinaitic revelation is the culmination of a process, but is not the sole covenantal event at the heart of this festival.

Festival of Weeks שָׁבֻעוֹת or Oaths שְׁבוּעוֹת

The covenantal nature of the festival may also be reflected when, only a few verses later, the dual nature of the holiday is expressed: “because it is the festival of weeks and it is the festival of first fruits. This festival is twofold and of two kinds” (6:21, according to the Ge`ez translation).[10] The theme of the holiday as the “festival of first fruits” refers to the agricultural context of the holiday, reflecting the biblical descriptions of its observance.

At first, this would seem to be true of the reference to the “festival of weeks,” which is also a biblical theme surrounding this holiday. Nevertheless, due to the overwhelming emphasis on covenant in this passage, including the mention of oaths made by Noah and his sons, and subsequently commanded in the time of Moses, numerous scholars have suggested that the original Hebrew text of Jubilees (based upon the retroversion of the Ge`ez back into Hebrew) should be vocalized as חג השְבועות “the festival of oaths,”[11] reflecting the covenantal aspect of the holiday.

Conclusion

Shavuot in Jubilees may seem quite different from the festival as practiced by Rabbinic Jews nowadays. The dates are not identical, and even the nature of the covenants celebrated reflect different conceptions. At the same time, the Book of Jubilees offers important hints for the development of the conception of Shavuot in rabbinic literature as a festival with a set time that is associated with the giving of the Torah.

View Footnotes:

  1. The Sinaitic revelation is dated to the 3rd month (Exod 19:1), but there is no mention of a specific date in the month. Furthermore, there is no reference to this event in the various festival laws (Exod 23:16; Lev 23:15–22; Num 28:26–31; Deut 16:9–12), which all address the agricultural aspects of the festival.
  2. Due to their fragmentary state, these scrolls provide evidence for only a small fraction of the text in its original Hebrew. It was translated from Hebrew into Greek, and from Greek into Latin and Ge`ez (ancient Ethiopic). The book is preserved in its entirety only in Ge`ez, in multiple manuscripts, and therefore all modern editions of this book are based upon that ancient translation. For a Hebrew version of the text, see the translation of M. Goldmann in הספרים החיצונים (ed. A. Kahana). The English translation of R.H. Charles is available online: http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/jubilees.html
  3. Cf. b. Menachot 65a-66a; Scholion to Megillat Ta`anit for the 8th day of Nisan (in MS Parma, the opposing position is attributed to the Sadducees; cf. the edition of Vered Noam (Yad Ben-Zvi, 2003), pp. 174-175; see also m.Hagiga 2:4.
  4. The questions posed on the Boethusians’ position in Rabbinic sources imply that it was the Shabbat during the festival. At the same time, it is possible that the later discussions were no longer aware of the precise details of their calendar, beyond the debate of whether Shabbat referred to Saturday or a festival day. For more on Samaritan Shavuot, see Benyamim Tsedaka’s TABS essay, “The Samaritan Shavuot: A Seven-Day Celebration of the Feast of Weeks.”
  5. See Targums Onqelos, Neofiti, Pseudo-Jonathan, Genizah ms F to Lev 23:11, 15; Sifra Emor 12: 1–2; b. Menachot 65-66. This interpretation leads to the anomaly that in Lev 23:16, the term שבת in the expression ממחרת השבת needs to be understood differently as “week”; cf. the Targums to Lev 23:16. The motivation for this interpretation was perhaps to anchor Shavuot to a specific date, which was only possible according to the lunar-solar calendar if the date of the wave offering was set according to a specific date (the 16th of the 1st month), and not to a day of the week. This move still theoretically allowed for a limited shift of the date (between the 5th and 7th of Sivan), since the specific date each year was still dependent upon the lengths of the months of Nissan and Iyyar, which could each have been either 29 or 30 days long.
  6. An additional event dated to the 15th of the 3rd month is the birth of Judah (28:15). It is unclear whether this reflects the covenantal status of the tribe of Judah, associated with the Davidic line. Alternatively, it is similar to other instances in Jubilees in which the births of significant characters are dated to important dates on the Jubilees calendar; cf. e.g. the births of Levi on the 1st of the 1st month (28:14), and Joseph on the 1st of the 4th month (28:24).
  7. The Qumran sect observed an annual ceremony of covenant renewal (cf 1QS II-III), which is dated to the third month in a manuscript of the Damascus Document from Qumran Cave 4 (4Q266 11, 17). 2Chr 15:10–15 may reflect an earlier (than Jubilees) source of a covenant renewal in the third month.
  8. This text was preserved in Hebrew at Qumran (4QJubileesa [4Q216] vii 9–13 [eds. VanderKam and Milik; DJD 19], pp. 19–20), with the missing words reconstructed according to the Ge`ez version.
  9. Similarly, according to Jubilees, the angels of presence and angels of holiness celebrated the Sabbath from the dawn of time (2:18), and were created circumcised (15:27), both also described in the Torah as covenantal signs.
  10. The text of this verse has not been preserved in any of the copies of Jubilees from the Dead Sea scrolls.
  11. Since texts in the ancient world did not use vocalization (a practice continued until today in the writing of Torah scrolls), the difference between “weeks” and “oaths” would only be in reflected in how one read and interpreted the text. According to the suggestion here, a Greek translator did not understand the nuance of the original author (Jubilees was translated from Hebrew into Greek, and from Greek into Ge`ez [a dialect of Ethiopic] and Latin).

 ***Some claim that the ancient Greek Sabbaton was used for “a week” not just for Shabbat. Even if it had a dual meaning, 3 days and nights from Wednesday bring us to Saturday-Shabbat! Today the modern Greek word is no longer Sabbaton but rather Evdomáda. Shabbat remains Sabbaton in modern Greek! 
***All correct quotes from the Restoration Scriptures True Name 7th Red Letter Edition

Three facts are evident! One that He, our Mar Yah Messiah, rose just before dawn!

Second that the actual reading of the plain texts show us that He rose on one of the weekly Shabbats

Not on a first day of any supposed week!

Third since Shabbat is not a Greek concept or practice, the word Sabbaton is borrowed from the Hebrew

And is preserved in the Greek as there is no Greek word for Shabbat.

Combining these three crucial basic FACTS that undergird all the resurrection texts IN ALL FOUR GOSPELS,

another confirming four by the way, we can conclude, that the day of Yom HaTechaiyah,-Resurrection Day,

Was Shabbat Morning, Aviv 18, which In Hebrew is the

Numerical number for life or new life! So first study the centuries old lies below and then be open to enter the truth

That is being restored before your very eyes and your ears, as it settles in your hearts!

Matthew 28

Moreover, after the Shabbat (annual-Aviv 15) it being just before/towards dawn toward one of the weekly Shabbats [Aviv 18], [i] came Miryam of Magdala and the other Miryam to see the tomb.

2 And, see, there was a great earthquake: for the heavenly malach of the Master HWHY descended from the shamayim, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.

3 His appearance was like lightning, and His clothing white as snow: RED LETTERS BELOW NOT IN THE TEXT!!!!!!!!!! ADDED TO HIDE SHABBAT MORNING RESURRECTION!!

Matthew 28:1 
Text AnalysisGo to Parallel Greek

YES. our MessiYAH was laid in the heart of the earth in Aviv Yom 15th day time before HE was placed in the grave! from Yom15th to 17th were 3 Days and 3 Nights. YES, HE was raised on the 3rd YOM/day after HIS Death!

More notes from Editor:

Here are the major 2021 Moed-Feast dates:

  • March 17- New Year Aviv1
  • March 30-Passover
  • March 31-Unleavened Bread day 1
  • April 6- Unleavened Bread day 7
  • April 11- New Barley/Omer day 1
  • May 30- Shavuot
  • July 18- New Wine
  • September 5- New Oil
  • September 12- New Wood
  • September 15- Yom Teruah
  • September 24- Yom Kippur
  • September 29- Sukkot Day 1
  • October 5th Sukkot Day 7
  • October 6- Shemini Atzeret Day after Sukkoth

Commentary on SIN, and the State of our Nation (USA)

@6-2-20 By:  Edward A. Young, Ministry of Aloahiym

http://man-child.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/6-2-20-Commentary-on-SIN-and-the-State-of-our-Nation-USA-5.pdf

Speaking in reference to this country (USA), we are under the judgment of YAHUWAH Aloahiym.  We have sinned and done wickedly ignoring His righteous laws:  practicing lawlessness; murdering  millions of innocent babies; practicing evil sexual immorality and then passing laws to protect those who commit these abominations; practicing of extortion by corrupting the money system and then using it to create the bondage of debt; to name only a few.

When and what the Festival of Shavuot Memorializes

By Clifford Fearnley

Introduction

“And from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, you shall count for yourselves: seven completed Sabbaths. Until the morrow after the seventh Sabbath you count fifty days, then you shall bring a new grain offering to YHWH. Bring from your dwellings for a wave offering two loaves of bread, of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour they are, baked with leaven, first-fruits to YHWH.” (Lev.23:15-17).

When it comes to this particular Festival, Scripture is vague; we are left in doubt about its timing and what it represents. We are told to count a definite period starting from the day after a Sabbath but Scripture is unclear which Sabbath, similarly we are told to wave two loaves of bread but not told why or what they symbolize.

We associate Shavuot with the giving of the Torah at Mt. Sinai, the waving of the first fruits of the wheat harvest and the outpouring of the Ruach HaKodesh (Acts 2) but are we celebrating correctly? Not if we are to take any notice of the past, the ancients celebrated this Festival well before the Sinai event and certainly before what is described in Acts 2. Thus the Festival of Shavuot was celebrated before some of the events we believe it to represent. Now doesn’t that realization create a paradigm shift in our understanding? Another issue for us is how did the ancients calculate the Count of the Omer and date Shavuot.

When Scripture fails to provide the answers we should not, indeed, according to Mashiach (Matt.15:9) we must not, make up our own rules, thus with respect to;

  1. The Correct Date for Shavuot and
  2. What Shavuot Memorialises

we have to search other avenues of information: we are forced to look beyond the Scriptures and consider literature that was never canonised.

The extra-canonical information we will be considering is from; the Dead Sea scrolls and the book of Jubilees with some references to the book of Enoch. Oftentimes these two books are viewed with a jaundiced eye merely because they were never canonized. Yet the books of Jubilees and Enoch were, in both cases, recited to the recipient by a Malak; a heavenly messenger of YHWH, this itself is a compelling argument for these two books to be considered in the same vein as the Scriptures.1 It is astonishing that lower man could award himself the authority to decide information from a divine source was unworthy of the canon. Man’s decision to exclude this literature was not so much because it lacked credibility but more likely because it obstructed a particular agenda/philosophy.

From the three sources: the Dead Sea Scrolls, the book of Enoch and the book of Jubilees we are, insofar as this festival is concerned, able to resolve the above issues and ascertain the true date for Shavuot and what this celebration is about.

Dating Shavuot

“Speak to the children of Israel, and you shall say to them, ‘When you come into the land which I give you, and shall reap its harvest, then you shall bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest to the priest and he shall wave the sheaf before YHWH for your acceptance. On the morrow, after the Sabbath, the priest waves it.” (Lev.23:10-11)

“And from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, you shall count for yourselves: seven completed Sabbaths. ‘Until the morrow after the

1 Refer to the separate article ‘Exclusivity Or Not of the Canon of Scripture’ found at www.undertorah.com under Miscellaneous articles

seventh Sabbath you count fifty days, then you shall bring a new grain offering to YHWH.” (Lev.23:15-16).

The period specified in Lev.23:15-16 is commonly referred to as the Counting of the Omer. As the verse instructs the Omer period is to start and finish on the day after a Sabbath and is to comprise seven Sabbaths, these facts are very clear. Less clear is from which Sabbath the counting is to begin.

Where to start the Count of the Omer is an issue of contention within Judaism. The Karaites start the 50 day count from the Sunday falling within the week of unleavened bread, whilst others of Orthodox following commence the counting from the second day of unleavened bread. So which is correct, could it be neither is correct? There is a verse from Exodus that is generally overlooked, yet it does impact on this issue,

In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. (Exod.19:1)

The phrase ‘the same day’ is translated ‘on that day’ in some scriptures. Whatever translation is used the use of the word ‘same’ in this verse is ambiguous and may be interpreted as meaning any of the following;

  1. The first day of the third month,
  2. The third day of the third month,
  3. The same day of the week as that on which they left Egypt,
  4. The same date of the month they left Egypt.
Text Box: Unleavened Bread

Taking (a)–(d) into consideration, the rules of neither the Karaites nor the Orthodox satisfy any of these alternatives,

Month 1 Date Solar Calendar Da ys Omer Count Event
Orthodox Karaite
Aviv 14 Tue 0     Pesach
  15 Wed 1     Day 1 of unleavened bread (Shabbat)
  16 Thu 2 1   Waving of first fruits (Orthodox start)
  17 Fri 3 2    
  18 Sat 4 3   First weekly Shabbat within Matzah
  19 Sun 5 4 1 Karaite start
  20 Mon 6 5 2  
  21 Tue 7 6 3 Last day of unleavened bread
             
  30 Thu   15 12 Last day of Month 1
Month 2 1 Fri   16 13  
             
  30 Sat 46 45 42 Last day of Month 2
Month 3 1 Sun 47 46 43 (a)
  2 Mon 48 47 44  
3 Tues 49 48 45 (b)
4 Wed 50 49 46 (c)
5 Thur 51 50 47 Shavuot (Orthodox)
6 Frid 52   48  
7 Sat 53   49  
8 Sun 54   50 Shavuot (Karaite)

Neither method of counting satisfies any of the conditions in (a) – (d), thus both philosophies ignore Exod.19:1.

Not only does neither teaching satisfy Scripture but neither Judaic authority can prove what they preach, so how can anyone have confidence in what they are advocating?

So concerning the dating of Shavuot let us consider what is said in the book of Jubilees

And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the first fruits of the grain harvest. (Jub.15:1).

All of the non-canonical literature we are using recognises a 364 day year comprising 12 months of 30 days with four additional days added at the head of each quarter/season. Thus when it says the middle of the third month it is referring to the 15th of the third month which, on the 364 day solar calendar is the 75th day of the year. Now let us refer to an earlier chapter from Jubilees; chapter six. To save time and space I have abridged what is written but have kept sufficient not to lose the context. We are only interested in the first half of the chapter which concerns the end of the flood and Noach’s exit from the ark. It is important to realise that the book of Jubilees was dictated to Moshe by a malak (a heavenly messenger) and Moshe is learning what happened concerning Noach,

And He gave to Noach and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood upon the earth. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covenant that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the Feast of Shavuot in this month once a year…..(Jub.6:15-17)

And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noach – twenty six jubilees and five weeks of years and Noach and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noach’s death, and from the day of Noach’s death his sons did away with it until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. But Abraham observed it, and Yitzchak

 and Ya’akov observed it until your days, and in your days the children of Israel forgot it until you celebrated it anew on this mountain. (Jub.6:18-19).

Reading Jub.15:1 with the above, clearly it was the Festival of Shavuot that Avraham and his sons celebrated on the 15th of the third month. We are told that the festival was observed by the patriarchs, subsequently forgotten and re-instituted with Moshe. What is more the patriarchs could not have been wrong with the timing because we are told that this, as are other moedim, was written down on heavenly tablets and they would not have  been allowed to celebrate it incorrectly.

The 15th of the third month is the 75th day of the year which means the start of the Count of the Omer is from the 26th day of the year (inclusive counting), which falls outside the week of unleavened bread. What this means is that we must use a calendar in which the 26th and 75th days fall immediately after a Sabbath, which is only possible using a solar calendar which recognises the equinoxes. As far as I am aware no other calendar is able to satisfy this requisite.2

Starting the count of the Omer from the day after the first Sabbath after the week of Matzah is alien to most but the accuracy of doing so becomes clearer when we realise the ancients considered Pesach and the week of Matzah as a single celebration. Consider how Moshe phrases his instructions concerning this festival,

Guard the month of Aḇiḇ, and perform the Passover to YHWH your Elohim, for in the month of Abib YHWH your Elohim brought you out of Mitsrayim by night. And you shall slaughter the Passover to YHWH your Elohim, from the flock and the herd, in the place where YHWH chooses to put His Name. Eat no leavened bread with it. For seven days you eat unleavened bread with it, bread of affliction, because you came out of the land of Mitsrayim in haste – so that you remember the day in which you came out of the land of Mitsrayim, all the days of your life. And no leaven should be seen with you in

2 More is explained on this point in the separate article ‘Which is YHWH’s Calendar.’

all your border for seven days, neither should any of the meat which you slaughter in the evening on the first day stay all night until morning. (Deut.16:1-4)

This passage clearly shows that Moshe did not consider the Pesach a separate celebration to Matzah. The Jewish historian Josephus in his Antiquities of the Jews refers to the ‘Pesach week’ and also talks of the eight days of unleavened bread which has to include Pesach. Josephus would be talking in terms of what was customary within Jewish society. Scroll 4Q325 of the Dead Sea Scrolls describing the priestly family in service at the time of the Pesach talks in terms of an eight day Pesach. I do not have the audacity to say I know better  than Abraham, Yitzchak, Ya’akov, Moshe and the Zadokite Qumran community. In the gospel, Pesach is referred to as being on the first day of ‘Feast of unleavened bread’ (Matt.26:17). Even the Jews today refer to the 15th Abib to be the second day of Pesach and talk in terms of ‘the days (not day) of Pesach. Clearly the concept that Pesach included the week of Matzah is overwhelming and concurs with the Zadokite understanding that the phrase, ‘And from the morrow after the Sabbath’ refers to the first Sabbath after the completion of the week of Matzah.

Did Mashiach’s Death and Resurrection Effect the Date of Shavuot?

Did Mashiach’s death, resurrection and ascension affect the count of the Omer? Are we to correlate the waving of the first fruits of the crop with the first fruits of the resurrection, are they synonymous? When we collect together the following three elements: 1) that Deut.4:2 commands that the Torah is not to be meddled with, 2) Jubilees categorically states that the correct date of Shavuot 15/3 is ordained on heavenly tablets and 3) we are told Mashiach never sinned therefore He never transgressed Torah. How then could He implement a change to YHWH’s calendar? What is more, at His Pesach Mashiach specifically said this is the blood of the new covenant not new calendar. If His death and resurrection was to change YHWH’s calendar He had the ideal opportunity to confirm this when referring to the sign of Jonah (Matt.12:39-40). Nowhere does Mashiach mention any impending change to YHWH’s calendar as a result of His death and resurrection and nowhere does Scripture use the terms ‘first fruit of the harvest’ and ‘first fruits of the resurrection’ synonymously, if this was to be correct we would have to enquire how is the second waving of the harvest at Shavuot synonymous of resurrection?

What the Festival of Shavuot Memorializes

Other than to infer thanksgiving for a successful harvest, the Scriptures provide no explanation for this celebration. Today we attach several events to this festival; First Fruits of the harvest, the giving of the Torah at Sinai and the giving of the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Spirit) as described in Acts 2. However, as mentioned in the Introduction, this Festival was celebrated centuries before these events. So what exactly were the ancients celebrating and should we be celebrating likewise?

The book of Jubilees shows us that YHWH chose the date of Shavuot; the 15th of the third month to enact several very salient events,

And He gave to Noach and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. And He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covenant that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the ‘Feast of Weeks’ in this month once a year, to renew the covenant every year. (Jub.6:15-17)

It was on Shavuot that YHWH made a solemn promise with creation to never flood the earth again and it is commanded for us to renew/refresh/remember YHWH’s promise at this time every year. Then we have the following additional covenants enacted on this date. To save space I have abridged both abstracts,

Jubilees chapter 14;

1After these things, in the fourth year of this week, on the New Moon of the third month, the word of YHWH came to Abram in a dream saying “Fear not Abram: I am your defender and your reward will be exceedingly great…9 And He said unto him, “Take Me a heifer of three years, and a goat of three

years, and a sheep of three years, and a turtle dove, and a pigeon.” 10 And he took all these in the middle of the month.

Jubilees chapter 15;

1And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first fruits. 2And he offered new offerings on the alter, the first fruits of the produce unto YHWH, an heifer and a goat and a sheep on the alter as a burnt sacrifice unto YHWH; their fruit offerings and their drink offerings he offered upon the alter with frankincense. 3And YHWH appeared to Abram and said to him, 4“I am YHWH almighty; approve yourself before Me and be you perfect. And I will make My covenant between Me and you and I will multiply you exceedingly.” 5And Abram fell on his face and YHWH talked with him, and said, 6“Behold My ordinance is with you, and you shall be the father of many nations..9”And I shall establish My covenant between Me and you and your seed after you throughout their generations, for an eternal covenant so that I may be an Elohim unto you and your seed after you. 11And YHWH said unto Abraham, “And as for you do you guard My covenant, you and your seed after you and you circumcise every male after you.

Note there is no mention of two loaves of leavened bread, as we will see there was no need of such symbolism until later.

So, insofar as this festival is concerned what we have so far is,

  1. YHWH’s covenant promise never again to flood the earth
  2. YHWH’s covenant with Abram
  3. The covenant of circumcision

Feast of Weeks

  • Waving of first Fruits                                                                                             Feast of First Fruits

Thus the Festival of Shavuot has two elements, a fact confirmed by Jubilees,

For it is the ‘Feast of Weeks’ and the ‘Feast of First Fruits:’ this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraved concerning it. (Jub.6:21).

Clearly it was covenant that the ancients attached to this Festival, even the element of ‘First Fruits’ has covenantal implications as we will see. But we cannot ignore the covenantal element associated with the outpouring of the Ruach Hakodesh upon the disciples also at Shavuot. So post Sinai what we have for Shavuot is,

  1. YHWH’s covenant promise never again to flood the earth
  2. YHWH’s covenant with Abram
  3. The covenant of circumcision
  4. The command to wave two loaves of leavened bread
  5. The earthly institution of the new covenant : Acts 2

Feast of Weeks

  • Waving of first Fruits                                                                                               Feast of First Fruits

It could be argued that item 5 should not be included because Mashiach introduced the new covenant at  Pesach not Shavuot however we must remember that the new covenant is the ‘Gospel’ of Mashiach and it was inaugurated at Shavuot.

The question we now have is, are we transgressing Deut.4:2 by adding to this celebration? I don’t believe so. Clearly Shavuot is YHWH’s appointed time to celebrate His covenants a fact confirmed by Jubilees. Items 1,2

and 3 were always a part of Torah indeed they were written on heavenly tablets and YHWH Himself added item 4 with the giving of the Torah at Sinai. The principle here is that Shavuot is the time of a refreshing of YHWH’s covenants and He tells us specifically which covenants are to be celebrated, that is those given on this date. Note again the following passage from Jubilees which states that Moshe celebrated this feast in the same manner as did the patriarchs,

And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noach – twenty six jubilees and five weeks of years and Noach and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noach’s death, and from the day of Noach’s death his sons did away with it until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. But Abraham observed it, and Yitzchak and Ya’akov observed it until your days, and in your days the children of Israel forgot it until you celebrated it anew on this mountain. (Jub.6:18-19).

What all this reveals is that the cannon of Scripture is, on its own, inadequate for us to correctly observe Shavuot and proves the necessity of studying extra canonical literature.

Feast of Weeks

But what of the new covenant ordained by Mashiach should this be added to Shavuot? I would say no because this covenant was ordained at a different time and has its own specific celebration – Pesach. However, I have included this covenant in the Appendix for those who may wish not to exclude it.

The book of Jubilees leaves us in no doubt that this festival is for covenant remembrance. Unfortunately this element of Shavuot is lost today because following Judaism many are starting the count of the Omer from the wrong Sabbath and unable to attach any relevance of the 15th of the third month consequently the connection between Shavuot and covenant is lost.

Feast of First Fruits

We know that this part of the ceremony is to give thanks to YHWH for a blessed harvest which is to be symbolised by waving two loaves of wheat bread. But why this specific symbolisation, why not just wave the first sheaf of the harvest as with the barley first fruits? It is because of what the loaves represent and the intrinsic connection this festival has with covenant. However, because most have failed to recognise this connection there is confusion about what the two loaves actually symbolise. Some say the two houses of Israel: others say Jew and Gentile, whilst a third opinion is that the two loaves represent righteousness and unrighteousness. When we consider the two loaves are identical this latter opinion is illogical: how can two identical objects represent two opposites. The same philosophy can be applied to the claim Jew and Gentile. Whilst these may not be opposites they are far from identical. When we consider that this festival is about the refreshing/remembrance of covenants, it is obvious that the gentiles cannot be represented in this ceremony. YHWH never made any covenants with the Gentile nations, He only ever covenanted with Israel. As the apostle says, Gentiles wanting covenant benefits must be grafted into Israel. So Gentiles cannot be represented in this waving of First Fruits. The only alternative left is for the two loaves to be symbolic of the two houses of Israel. In other words a complete Israel is YHWH’s first fruits, a fact confirmed by Jeremiah,

Holy is Israel to YHWH the first-fruits of His increase. (Jer.2:3)

But identifying what the loaves most probably represent does not explain the reason for the symbolism commanded by YHWH. Could there be several messages in this; 1) The leavened state of the loaves is a reminder that Israel will remain in a sinful condition until they accept Mashiach and His atoning sacrifice which will happen on His return (Zach.12:10-11), when all covenant promises concerning Abram’s descendants will be fulfilled. 2) Irrespective of Israel’s unrighteous condition YHWH still provides for them in remembrance of His words to the prophet (Isa. 49:15-16). 3) That Israel will remain divided until YHWH collects His body of believers at the end of this age and 4) it is a demonstration of YHWH’s accessibility, even for sinners (Isa.55:7).

With all of the above in mind how should we celebrate Shavuot? I have attached an appendix at the end of this article which provides some guidance for those who wish to make use of it.

A Further Comment on Jub.6:18-19

And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noach – twenty six jubilees and five weeks of years and Noach and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noach’s death, and from the day of Noach’s death his sons did away with it until the days of Abraham, and they ate blood. But Abraham observed it, and Yitzchak and Ya’akov observed it until your days, and in your days the children of Israel forgot it until you celebrated it anew on this mountain. (Jub.6:18-19).

This passage says that YHWH’s commandment never again to flood the earth was celebrated in heaven from the time of creation, that is, it was celebrated before it was given to Noach. The book of Jubilees leaves us in no doubt of YHWH’s omniscience and that all of YHWH’s commandments and rules for humanity were preordained and celebrated by the heavenly host in advance of YHWH declaring them on earth.

As an aside, this passage also provides proof of the synchronisation between heavenly worship and earthly worship. In her book on the Dead Sea Scrolls titled ‘The Three Temples’ Rachel Ellior explains how the scrolls describe the interaction between the malakim and the temple priests thus, when we read the closing phrase of Jubilees 3:21; ‘They should keep Sabbath with us’ we can take this phrase literally. Whilst the above passage tells us that the celebration was ceased on earth there is no reason to believe heavenly worship was affected by this earthly cessation. What would have stopped was worship synchronisation between the two realms.

Conclusion

The Qumran community were Zadokites who YHWH says never erred (Ezek.48:11): they began the count of the Omer from the 26th day and not from any Sabbath within the week of Matzah. They were advocates of the solar calendar, believing this to be the calendar against which the heavenly host established sacred time and sacred service, a belief that is confirmed in the books of Jubilees and Enoch. They were also the temple administers and must have had the correct timing for Shavuot. Only a solar calendar acknowledging the relevance of the vernal equinox facilitates the correct timing for the Festival of Shavuot, being the 15th of the third month and for this date to be a day after a Sabbath.

The timing of YHWH’s comment to Ezekiel cannot be over-looked. Ezekiel lived during the period spanning the first and second temples and the temple administrators at this time were the Zadokite priests. Thus when YHWH says they ‘never erred’ He can only be referring to their performance as the temple administrators.

It was because the temple priests accepted a lunar calendar which precluded not only the correct observance of the festival of Shavuot but also the observance of the other festivals on the correct days, that the Zadokite priests separated from the temple and formed the Qumran community.3 This defilement was prophesied in the book of Jubilees,

For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon – how it disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb the order and make an abominable day the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day and they will confound all the days, the kodesh with the unclean, and the unclean day with the kodesh; for they will go wrong as to the months and Sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. (Jub.6:36-37).

Remember these words were spoken by a malak of YHWH to Moshe and probably first penned by Moshe himself.

3 More is explained about the cessation of the Zadokite priests in the separate article ‘Which is YHWH’s Calendar.’

As said in the Introduction, Scripture is vague insofar as this festival is concerned, thankfully the book of Jubilees and the Dead Sea Scrolls plug the holes left by the Scriptures and gives us the true date and the true principles behind this festival. YHWH promised the outpouring of His Ruach in the end times. We are being blessed today as YHWH reveals more of His truth. But when His truth requires us to undo old beliefs and philosophies are we humble enough to do so, or are we going to let pride stand in the way? Nowhere in the Scriptures is pride spoken of in a positive context.

Clifford Fearnley 2019

APPENDIX

Accepting the emphasis of Shavuot is covenant renewal the following is purely a suggested procedure and liturgy for celebrating this feast;

Part 1: Festival of Weeks

The following passages referencing the individual covenants are suggested reading;

  • Rainbow covenant and events leading up to it: Gen.6:9-9:17
    • Abrahamic covenant starting with the initial promise YHWH made to Abram. This promise is the ‘head’ of all the subsequent covenants made with Israel:

I. Gen.12:1-3

II. Gen.15:1-21. YHWH reiterated this covenant with Abraham’s descendants Yitzchak, Gen.26:1-5 and Ya’akov, Gen.35:9-12.

  • Covenant of circumcision: Gen.17:1-14
    • Giving of the Torah at Sinai: Exod.19:1-22:17,(for brevity I restrict this section), Gen.24:4-8

I would conclude the Old Testament provisions with the passages detailing the blessings and curses recited on Mounts Gerizim and Eybal Deut.28:1-68

  • Institution of the new covenant: Matt.26:26-29, Acts2:1-4

After revising the individual covenants it is incumbent upon all of us to reconfirm our continuance in covenant with YHWH and you may like to follow my directive for all partaking of this celebration to recite the following,

“At this time as commanded by YHWH I reconfirm my partnership in all of the covenants YHWH Eloheinu (YHWH my Elohim) has offered me through Abraham, Yitzchak and Ya’akov and in the new covenant sealed with the blood of Yahusha HaMashiach.”

Part 2: Festival of First Fruits

Scripture only details the waving of two loaves of leavened bread without identifying what the loaves symbolise, thus, insofar as Scripture is concerned, it is difficult to adopt a liturgy corresponding to this action. The following is proposed in harmony with the explanation offered in the attached article and for those in agreement it may be advantageous to revisit this section of the article.

Today YHWH’s Israel, the impending Israel of the millennium will be a community of believers in Mashiach. So for those who have repented and accepted Mashiach do the two unleavened loaves have any significance? Insofar as the loaves symbolize the unrighteous condition of the House of Ya’akov the answer is no: the body of Mashiach has no relationship with a disobedient Israel. However, as stated in the article, within this symbolism there is the acknowledgment of YHWH’s ever existing grace irrespective of human weakness and it is this element that we should never forget. So, as instructed in Leviticus, the host should wave the two loaves and all partaking may recite words such as these,

“Heavenly Father: YHWH Eloheinu, we are forever wretched and so we come before you always in repentance, undeserving of your grace and favor and so we give thanks that you are a compassionate Elohim who promises to hear the cries of a repentant heart. Thank you Yahushua Mashiach.”

I stress the above is a suggested format only.

P.S. Editor’s note:

The scripture uses the phrase “on (or in) the same day”. The same day as to what? The Hebrew is as unambiguous as the English translation:

it is “in the same day” -(


) that the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt. To what day does this phrase refer?

“So you shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for on this same day I will have brought your armies out of the land of Egypt” (Exodus 12:17).

Clearly, the reference is to the first day of Unleavened Bread, Nisan 15. Notice in Exodus 12:17 the use of the phrase “same day”

(     

                      ) just as Exodus 19:1 uses “in the same day” (    

                        ). Repeatedly in the account of the exodus, the day (yom)

the Israelites went out of Egypt is used with the demonstrative adjective.

“And Moses said to the people: Remember this day (     

                             ) [        

                               is just the untranslatable accusative

marker] in which you went out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of the hand of YHWH brought you out of this place.

No leavened bread shall be eaten.”On this day you are going out, in the month Abib” (Exodus 13:3-4).

41 “And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years — on that very same day (           

                                                                                                                                                                                                       literally,

“in the bone [i.e. substance] of this day) — it came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt” (Exodus 12:41).

51 “And it came to pass, on that very same day (   

                                             ), that the YHWH brought the children of Israel out

of the land of Egypt according to their armies” (Exodus 12:51).

It should be clear that when all of these passages use the phrase      

                                             in some form and all clearly refer to the 15th of Nisan

the day of the Israelites’ departure from Egypt, then Exodus 19:1 means that they came to the wilderness of Sinai on the fifteenth day of the third month.

Learning Paleo Hebrew by Bet HaShem Midrash

Aleph Bayit Learning Paleo Hebrew.pdf file:///C:/Users/YahnEl/Downloads/2019%20Aleph%20Bayit%20Learning%20Paleo%20Hebrew.pdf

TABLE             CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Part One, The Story of the Letters……………………………………………… 5

Part Two, The Letters………………………………………………………………… 9

The Garden of Letters……………………………………………………….. 11

Basic Meanings of the Letters…………………………………………… 18

Alephbayit Tables 1-5……………………………………………….. 18-21

Part Three, Combining Letters………………………………………………… 22

Word Formations……………………………………………………………………. 27

Names……………………………………………………………………………………. 29

The Message of YahúWah…………………………………………………………….. 31-34

Footnotes……………………………………………………………………………….. 35

Appendix:………………………………………………………………………. 36-44

The Tables of the Alphabets………………………………………………………………………….. 36-37

Letters of Ancient and Modern Alphabets………………………………………………………….. 38

Chart of the 22 Scrolls of The Letters/The Scriptures…………………………………………. 39

Chart of the Pairs of Letters: The 12 Houses of Alehim (Elohim)………………………. 40

Chart of the States of Light:…………………………………………………………………………. 41-42

The Cardinals of Aleph to Yud……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

The Cardinals of Zayin to Oyin………………………………………………………………………….. 41

The Cardinals Lamed to Shayin…………………………………………………………………………. 42

22 Letters of Totality………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

Numerical Associations of the Letters………………………………………………………………… 44

The Song of the Aleph Bayit………………………………………………………………………………. 45

The Fiery Body of the Letters…………………………………………………………………………….. 46

INTRODUCTION

THE AlephBayit

Have you ever wondered why the Letters of the AlephBayit are in a certain order, and

why it is important to learn the AlephBayit in that order? Have you ever wondered why the letters are shaped as they are and what their shapes mean, or desired to understand the reasons for combining letters together to form words?

We are rewarded for learning and for being able to recite the Letters. The order of the Letters is used throughout one’s life—in our communications, work, and in our storage and retrieval of information. The arrangement of the Letters contain many wonders and are the means to proceed into Life.

The letters are called after the first two characters, A/A/Aleph/Alpha and B/B/Bayit/Bet—the AlephBayit. The first AlephBayit of humanity, commonly shared by the Ovri/Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic, and Samaritan peoples,1 is comprised of twenty-two characters. In this original order of letters, individual letters are used in more than one way and convey more than one sense.2 These  twenty-two characters provided the basic framework for the Greek alphabet, which in turn was borrowed by the Romans, from whose innovations the alphabet symbols of the modern, Western World are derived. See Appendix: The Table of the Alphabets pg 36-37.

Although the shapes and sounds of the letters and their arrangement in sequence have varied somewhat from the original AlephBayit across the millennia of adaptation, the underlying meaning and basic order of the original twenty-two letters remain. From these twenty-two signs, we have developed multi-systems of communication and have filled countless volumes of books and libraries.

The original twenty-two letters are not strangers to us. They are hieroglyphic symbols for the Principles underlying all forms. Their meanings are understood in every age and from every perspective.

Not only do the characters represent various human body parts,3 animal forms and functions, plants, heavenly bodies, and the social positions of humankind, they correspond to the 22 amino acids and the 22 like pairs of chromosomes common to humanity. We continually encounter the letters, both internally and externally. Therefore, we stand to benefit greatly by consciously renewing our acquaintance with these structures of Light.

The order of the Letters provides a framework for literature. The Scriptures contain 22 scrolls, from Sepher Maaseh Bereshith/Genesis to Dibre Hayamin/Chronicles.4 There is one scroll for each letter of the AlephBayit arranged in accordance with the progressive meaning of the letters. Each scroll’s assigned letter is understood to be emblematic of the scroll’s contents. See Appendix: Chart of the 22 Scrolls of the Letters, pg 39.

The Stories in scriptures are told via acrostic writings of the AlephBayit. Each scroll or book is a message of a Letter. Within the various scrolls of the Ovri texts, there are numerous AlephBayit acrostics, showing the importance of the AlephBayit in the minds of its writers/compilers. Tehillah/Psalm 119 is divided into twenty-two stanzas—one for each letter of the AlephBayit—and recounts a progression from the conception of righteousness unto perpetual renewal. In this surviving testimony to the AlephBayit’s order and endorsement, each stanza corresponds to the meanings of the AlephBayit letter that begins both the stanza, itself, and also the eight verses that comprise each stanza.5 Additionally, various types of acrostic writing6 found elsewhere in the Bible7 and in the siddur (prayer book), including songs and poetry, are based on the order of the Letters.8

The order of the AlephBayit characters tells a special story—a story that has been “hidden” to many, but nonetheless, a story that has been historically and universally accepted. The understanding of this story is like receiving a very special gift—a gift that belongs to all humankind; for the AlephBayit tells The Story of Life and the Totality of All in One.

THE MESSAGE OF THE NAME YHWH

Aleph Bayit Learning Paleo Hebrew.pdf file:///C:/Users/YahnEl/Downloads/2019%20Aleph%20Bayit%20Learning%20Paleo%20Hebrew.pdf





 Highly recommend this Youtube video relating to this subject: 

Head of the Year – Rosh Hashanah : The Feasts of the Children of Light – Head of the YearImage may contain: flower and text

March 2019-March 2020 Zadokite Priestly Calendar As Found in the Dead Sea Scrolls   

By Sholiach Moshe Yoseph Koniuchowsky

Jerusalem Spring Equinox reading confirmed Spring Astronomical Equinox was on March 20th 2019

We have been studying & making progress in grasping all there is regarding Torah time & we share with you each piece as He, our loving Abba, reveals it to us. This is now our 34th year of study on this vital matter & so we bring you our latest & most up to date understanding, building & not negating past revelations of time restoration! The weekly Shabbat starting the new Torah year Aviv 4 in 2019, will fall on Saturdays, as Day 364 will be on Tuesday March 19th 2019 and Aviv 1 WEDNESDAY March 20th 2019, making Shabbat on Saturdays this year and every other year as well, since the Torah based Year CANNOT START ON ANY DAY OF THE WEEK OTHER THAN DAY 4, WHICH WE HAVE PROVEN CORRESPONDS TO OUR MODERN WEDNESDAY!

                        From our studies so far we can assert the following few details as facts:

-The Vernal Equinox is the sign that a New Torah Year can or is in its right season to begin. It can fall on any day within the same Equinox Week, a 7 day period that transits from the old to the New Year on Aviv 1.
-Both The Vernal & Fall Equinoxes are confirmed by the shadows throughout the day making a straight line. A second witness is that only on the Spring and Fall Equinoxes does the moon rise in the east, in the same exact window that the sun sets in the west. A 3rd witness is that the year begins in the constellation of Pisces for at least another 400 or so years.
​-Every 3 years Aviv 1 starts with a full moon! That is when the full moon occurs on the same day as Aviv 1 which occurs, that same Wednesday, not the following Wednesday. This will occur in 2019.
-That the first 4th day of the week [the first Wednesday] after Day 364 [always on a Tuesday] is always Aviv 1 each and every year based on the Torah command of a 364 day year. The Wednesday of the Spring Equinox week.
-That the Torah year always starts on a 4th Day-Wednesday & always ends on a 3rd Day-Tuesday & is exactly 364 days as required by Torah, The New Covenant & Enoch.
-That the Spring Equinox occurs on a day during the last week of the 364 day year. EVERY YEAR, with Aviv 1 always being the Wednesday [Day 4] after a 364 day year ends on a Tuesday, EVERY YEAR, as required by Torah, The New Covenant & Enoch.
-That YHUH masterfully built in intercalation and there is absolutely no need to ever add days, months, weeks or years, as long as we wait each year until the first Wednesday after the 364th day on a Tuesday, during The Spring Tekufah-Equinox week. This method adjusts itself!

More Understanding! NOW PLEASE DO NOT GET ANGRY!!!! Most of you will never get the 364 day 52 week solar calendar right or YAH’s times right, because you insist on matching Gregorian dates with the calculated times of YAH! You cannot mix Gregorian data with biblical data-dates! Unless you want false calendars and violations of YAH’s Torah! Let me explain!

First let us look at the Scriptures that require a calculated 364 day 52 week year! After all, seeking the correct times must be based on Scripture alone!

​Jubilees-Yovleem Chapter 6:

30 And all the yamim of the commandment will be fifty two weeks of yamim-days  and (these will make) the entire year complete. Thus it is engraved and ordained on the heavenly tablets.
31 And there is no neglecting (this commandment) for a single year from year to year [no year can have 13 months or more than 52 weeks, even by one day]. IF YOU FOLLOW MEN THAT INSIST YOU HAVE TO ADD A WEEK EVERY SO OFTEN, IT IS NOT OF THE FATHER!!
32 And command the children of Yisrael that they observe [all] the years according to this reckoning – three hundred and sixty-four yamim-days and (these) will constitute a complete year and they will not disturb its time from its yamim-days and from its feasts; for everything will take place in them according to their testimony and they will not leave out any yom-day nor disturb any feasts. IF YOU OBEY HIS COMMANDS, HE WILL SEE TO IT THAT YOU ARE GIFTED WITH THE CORRECT TIMES!! IF YOU DISOBEY AND FOLLOW GUESSWORK AND NOT HIS MATH FOUND IN HIS COMMANDS, HE WILL SEE TO IT THAT YOUR TIMES ARE DISTURBED AND NATURALLY YOU WILL BE DISTURBED ABOUT THAT!
33 But if they do neglect and do not observe them according to His commandment, then they will disturb all their seasons and [all] the years will be dislodged from this (order), [and they will disturb the seasons and the years will be dislodged] and they will neglect their ordinances.
34 And all the children of Yisrael will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new months and seasons and the Shabbats and they will go wrong as to all the entire order of the years. YOU WON’T JUST BE WRONG ABOUT THE CALENDAR BUT ALL THE YEARS YOU ATTEMPT TO KEEP THE FEASTS WILL BE OUT OF HIS ORDER OR BROKEN!!!
35 For I know and from now on will I declare it unto you, and it is not of my own devising; for the book is written before me, and on the heavenly tablets the division of Yamim-days is ordained, lest they forget the feasts of the covenant-brit and walk according to the feasts of the goyim after their error and after their ignorance. [If we become like little school children YHUH will teach us His math [designed for men to work only in the heavenly & the earthly realm] and His ways-times so ignorance over the true times comes to an end!]
36 For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon[Strictly forbidden!]- how it disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten yamim-days too soon.
37 For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb (the order) and make an abominable (yom) the yom of testimony and an unclean yom a feast yom and they will confound all the yamim-days, the kadosh with the unclean and the unclean yom with the kadosh; for they will go wrong as to the months [once you add weeks or days, at any time, in any year, you mess up the perfect order of the kadosh-set apart 364 day 52 week year] and Shabbats and feasts and Jubilees.
38 For this reason I command and testify to you that you may testify to them; for after your death your children will disturb them, so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty-four Yamim-days [THIS PROPHECY HAS ALREADY COME TO PASS ON A DAILY BASIS!] ONLY and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new months [and weeks by implication] and seasons and Shabbats and feasts and they will [eventually] eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of [unkosher] flesh [the end of their rebellion, if they don’t stop adding days or weeks based on mere guesswork or human math!].

Enoch 75: 2 the exactness of the year is – accomplished through its separate three hundred and sixty-four stations​. Meaning, you must stop at day 364 for exactnesseven if it is a few days before the Spring Equinox and it’s visible straight line sign or even if the Roman calendar says it’s on A Friday, Sunday or any other day! Again be careful to obey HIM and not mix biblical and Roman data!!!! YHUH is watching and testing you, with the restoration of Torah time! Even if science and religion are against the 364 day 52 week per year COMMAND!

Enoch 82:6 And the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four yamim-days.  Nothing confusing about exactness right! Obey and get it right! Disobey!  And Stay Confused!

Enoch 71:32 On that yom-day the lyla-night decreases and amounts to nine parts and the yom to nine parts and the lyla 33 is equal to the yom-day and the year is exactly as to its yamim-days three hundred and sixty-four days!

Revelation 12:3 And I will give power to My two witnesses, and they shall prophesyone thousand two hundred sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. 

Revelation 12:6 And the woman [Israel] fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by YHUH, that they should feed her there one thousand two hundred sixty days [1,260 days = 42 months of 30 days. If The Book of Revelation allowed for years with more than 364 days and 52 weeks, then the 42 months would not be perfect months of 30 days each. We cannot make the perfect solar calendar like the lunar errors of the rabbinics, which would make us just as guilty as they are! YHUH has not given us permission to change or adjust HIS REVEALED MATHEMATICAL PERFECTION, designed specifically to work for you His follower! His calendar is designed NOT TO WORK for the worldly, fearful and unbelieving!

   Questions You May Have As You Learn To Stop ​Mixing Biblical With Gregorian Data!

What happens if the alleged Spring Equinox is on a weekday, other than Tuesday on a Messianic, Jewish or Papist calendar?

Answer: You are to ignore any and all Roman, Jewish or Messianic data. If you mix Roman data with biblical commands, your entire reckoning of time will be fully out of order, or broken!  All you have to do to stay confused, is to adopt the guesswork of men, who believe that some years have 365.25 or 366.25 and some misled bible believers-teachers, that believe a year can have 370 or 371 days. You also must be willing to reject and delete the lies from your delicate minds that your secular teachers taught you as a child, in secular anti- Messiah classrooms, about the 365.25 day year and leap year lies! 

If anyone intercalates even a single day, a few days, a month or a full week, in any given year, that breaks YHUH’s command to only count to 364 days, 52 weeks exactly, from now until eternity! By disobeying YHUH, mankind falls into the trap of violating His Word! Since 364 is divisible by 7, we get a perfect 52 weeks of 7 days each, with 4 seasons of exactly 13 weeks + 4 season marker days 360 + 4 = 364!  That means, using biblical DATA, the Vernal Equinox will always be during the last week of the year and New Year’s Day Aviv 1 on The Wednesday of that same Vernal Equinox Weekas “364 math” doesn’t lie, because YAH cannot lie. He does not need to guess!  The Vernal Equinox can shift to differing weekdays, nevertheless, the divine mathematical formula used by YAH still must be followed! The counting ends on day 364 ALWAYS A TUESDAY of the last week of the old year during the Spring Equinox Week! The Spring Equinox will always fall somewhere in those 7 days where the old year transits to the new one, always during the LAST WEEK OF THE OLD YEAR!

March 2019-March 2020 Zadokite Priestly Calendar As Found in the Dead Sea Scrolls March 2019-March 2020

​If we adopt Scripture and not guesswork taught as the official calendar, the mathematics of heaven and its tablets will be stable, unchanging and easy to understand. If you count from any Wednesday Aviv 1 and OBEY YHUH by stopping at day 364 you will always end on a Tuesday. Now you may ask what if we don’t see the straight line of shadows, The Aviv-Ot Aviv-Sign, until say Thursday, Friday or Saturday and not Tuesday of that last week of the year? Answer. It does not matter! The 364 day count will have ended on the prior Tuesday, always reckoned as day 364. 

If you grab this and stick to it despite pressure and appeals to your more common sense, time will never change and all YHUH’s appointed times will be like clockwork, keeping man’s guesswork out of heaven’s revealed math! Even though the straight line is in fact The Sign of The Tekufah-The Turn of The Year in every year and even if that Day 364 arrives before The Straight Line Aviv Sign, 

you MUST declare the next day after Day 364, always a Wednesday, as New Years Day, Aviv 1. This is a test from YHUH for you, to see if you will obey Him or man. To see if you walk by faith or by sight! To see just how hungry you are for sacred time, sacred ritual and sacred place! To see if like s.a.tan, you try to usurp YAH’ssovereignty and authority over time by inserting guesswork, days and human data! This is also a test, to see if you believe that YAH is restoring ancient manuscripts, used and preserved by the ancient Zadokite priests as His Word, as He Promised in Acts 3:21! Or will you rest your head on Catholic, Protestant and yes, even Messianic guesswork – I mean, so called “Cannon Scripture”! As for me and my house, we will serve The Commander of the 364 day, 52 week per year Command! ​Joshua 24:10

                 RECAP AGAIN- WE CANNOT VIOLATE A COMMAND ​AND GET THE TRUE SHABBATS!

Torah commands that the Torah year can only have 364 [360 +4 season markers] days divisible by 7! Regardless of what man or religion or secularists think. We are called to follow Scriptures and obey whether we have or don’t have all the answers. Here are key verses that warn us about following man or a 365.25 day year; we see that YHUH declares that our weekly Shabbats and all other appointed times will be off if we do. He promises that to us, unless we obey Him and stick to the 364 day [360 +4 season markers] year despite what is going on around us and despite Roman data that seems to make so much sense! That’s if we truly desire His Shabbats and His ways!
 
Here are the clear commands AGAIN! Jubilees 6:30-38, Enoch 72:1-2, 72:32-33, Enoch 75:2-4, Enoch 82:6-7. Two key points are in order. The word EXACT OR EXACTLY OR EXACTLY IN ORDER from year to year until eternity starts, appear in every one of the 364 day per year referencesThat can only mean that YHUH sees our understanding and obedience to 364 days and 52 weeks in a year only, as our recognition that He, not science so called, is the Adon-Master over the believer’s life. It is a requirement to keep things in exact order and any departure by even one day that allegedly floats or allegedly needs to be added, between now and eternity, will cause a disaster in man’s reckoning time.  Adding a day or a week or a month to 364 days and 52 weeks per year, will cause us to miss the wonderful set times. Let us be sincere but sincerely right, as we can be given the blessings of His Word and mind!
 
We cannot worry about the Roman dates that change due to the Gregorian calendar. We suggest counting the 364 days out from Aviv 1 each year [the very first Wednesday during the Spring Equinox WEEK] to be exact, marking each New Month. The command to count only 364 days a year is not a suggestion but a command from YHUH our Abba, regardless of what other intellectuals do, say or think! [EVEN IF THERE IS AN ALLEGED OR REAL 365th or 366th SUNRISE IN A YEAR, IT MUST BE IGNORED OR NOT COUNTED, as we wait for the 364th day to arrive. Torah, Enoch & Jubilees all say that every year will have 364 days and 52 weeks forever from year to year, ordained by heaven for man!! Heaven has gifted us the times of heaven written on the heavenly Torah-tablets allowing us mere mortals to partake with angels! Let us not squander that high calling! Man and astronomy-science say that the year is now 365.25. Who is right? Only The House of Zadok’s Everlasting Priesthood & Corresponding Anointing-Charge, resolves the Torah required 364 day [360 +4 season markers] 52 week Solar Year. Praise be to YHUH-Yahusha for the unfolding revelation He is and will yet provide. Enjoy the journey with us! 

The Eternal Times Of YHUH  Based on Torah & Enoch As Given by YHUH For  Tuesday March 19th 2019, the 364th Day of this year. Wednesday March 20th starts Year # 1 in the New 6 Year Zadokite Priestly Cycle.

**The Solar times of YAH do not ever use the moon for times and seasons as this is forbidden in Scripture, in such places as Torah & Jubilees Chapter 6! The 6 year priestly cycle First Chronicles Ch. 24:1-19, uses the moon phases of full and dark moons to establish when the Zadokite priestly order starts their assigned weeks in the Temple. These 2 checkpoints occur monthly, to make sure the priestly orders are ready, prepared and correct in their turn/watch! These 2 monthly checkpoints were not used for time determination, as these were the Zadokite priests, who would never use lunar calendars, which is the primary reason they abandoned the Second Temple in JerusalemTo the true priesthood therefore, neither the full nor dark moons are new months & moreover are not to be observed like the fallen watchers. They were mathematically calculated and recorded to and for the kohaneem-priests, who would then be on time in their commanded order, NOT OBSERVED AS THE FALLEN WATCHERS DID AND TAUGHT MEN TO DO! However……there IS IN FACT A UNIQUE PURPOSE FOR THE MOON, PREVIOUSLY NOT SEEN NOR UNDERSTOOD BY MANY AMONG US!

***The moon incredibly enough as it appears in the Zadokite priestly order actually establishes the eternality of the perpetual 7 day weekly cycle! The calculated dark and full moon phases are included by those solar calendar advocate priests, only to verify and display that the 7 day week has never changed and that these phases occur on the same corresponding weekdays of the modern week, as in Torah times & as in Messiah Yahusha’s time, as long as we make super sure to use the correct year in each recorded six year priestly cycle! These phases confirm that not only the 7 day week has never changed but that most importantly, neither has the Shabbat on the day THEY, the Pagans call Saturday!

****An easy way to see which year of the priestly cycle we are in is to see which priestly order starts it. [First Chronicles 24:1-19] Have a look for yourself!

Year 1 Gamul-New Cycle Aviv March 2019 (Or Year 4)
​Year 2 Yedayah-New Cycle Aviv March 2020 (Or Year 5)

P.S. Editor’s note for this section below:  { Based on the evidence from the Dead Sea Scroll, Man-Child Ministry is convinced that 2019 calendar corresponds to the year 4 /6 priestly cycle; and it is also a Sabbatical year which falls on the 4th of the 7 Sabbatical years. The charts that show this fact is attached. HalleluYAH  }:

1. Meaning of each priestly order names:

2. 2019 Dea Sea Scroll Calendar 4Q319

3. 2019 Qumran Calendar

 No.4. 6 years priestly order cycle…

take note of the 4/6 year for 2019 calendar

No.5 2019 Aviv 1… First month priestly order:

No.6 dds YHWH Calendar year 4 section that 2019 is a Sabbatical year

No7 . http://man-child.com/?p=211

The High Calling Of Your Life

The High Calling Of Your Life

This Is How The Followers Of Yah Walk Yah’s Path –  The High Calling

Continue with the rest of the article:

The Spring Equinox falls during the last week of the old year annually, so it is not ever necessary to wait for the following Wednesday, or go back to a prior Wednesday, as that would throw everything off, including the weekday moon phases recorded by the true Zadokite priests! The Sign of the Spring Equinox, the straight line of shadows from sunrise to sunset, will occur somewhere within the 7 days OF THE EQUINOX WEEK that transits the old year [day 364] to the new one on Aviv 1!

The lunar phases confirm the year of the cycle we are in. Aviv 1 has a full moon in years 1 & 4 and again on year one of the new priestly cycle. The priestly order was based on calculation of lunar phases, not the 2nd or 3rd day of a 2-3 day full moon and NEVER BY OBSERVATION OF THE MOON.

REMEMBER JUBILEES 6 & OTHER PLACES FORBID ANY USE OF THE MOON TO DETERMINE TIME. WE FOLLOW A SOLAR ONLY CALENDAR! WE ARE MERELY SHOWING HOW THE PHASES APPEARED ON THE SAME DAY OF THE WEEK  2,000 YEARS AGO, AS THEY DO TODAY, SHOWING US THAT THE SHABBAT OF THAT DAY REMAINS THE SAME TODAY WITH THE HEATHEN NAME OF SATURDAY.

****Gregorian dates change year to year regardless of Torah patterns. Roman data-dates need to be ignored and shunned every year!

​****The Torah priestly cycles NEVER CHANGE & are as follows: Years 1-4 same, Years 2-5 same, Years 3-6 same.

​****If we start every year on Day 4 – Modern Wednesday every year will end on a 3rd Day-Tuesday and will be exactly 364 days as required by Torah & Enoch!

                                              Torah Witnesses For The Eternal Solar Calendar!
                                                 Beresheth-Genesis Chapter 1 Verses 14-19

The First Torah Witness

14 And Elohim said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the shamayim to divide the yom from the night; and let them be for signs-witnesses [visible], and for moadim, and for [all] days, and years:

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the shamayim to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

16 And Elohim made-asah [assigned] two great lights; the greater light to rule the yom, and the lesser light to rule the night: therefore namely the cochavim.

17 And Elohim set them in the firmament of the shamayim to give light upon the earth,

18 And to rule over the yom and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and Elohim saw that it was tov.

19 And the evening and the morning were Yom Reeve-DAY FOUR.

​This is why all years begin on Day 4 of the first week, Wednesday, the day The Father assigned [Hebrew-Assah] the lights!

יד וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים, יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְהַבְדִּיל, בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה; וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים,וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים.

טו  וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם, לְהָאִיר עַל-הָאָרֶץ; וַיְהִי-כֵן.

טז  וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים, אֶת-שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים:  אֶת-הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל, לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם, וְאֶת-הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה, אֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים.

יז  וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים, בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם, לְהָאִיר, עַל-הָאָרֶץ.

יח  וְלִמְשֹׁל, בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה, וּלְהַבְדִּיל, בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ; וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים, כִּי-טוֹב.

יט  וַיְהִי-עֶרֶב וַיְהִי-בֹקֶר, יוֹם רְבִיעִי.

Deuteronomy-Devarim Chapter 16 Verse 1-The Second Torah Witness

שָׁמוֹר, את-חֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, וְעָשִׂיתָ פֶּסַח, לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:  כִּי בְּחֹדֶשׁ הָאָבִיב, הוֹצִיאֲךָ
​יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם-לָיְלָה

Guard The SIGN of the month of the Aviv; and perform Passover, to YHUH your Elohim; Because in the month of THE AVIV [season], YHUH your Elohim took you out of Egypt at night. The Sign being The Straight Line at the Vernal Equinox!

Exodus-Shemot 12:1-2-The Third Torah Witness

וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל-אַהֲרֹן, בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר.
הַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה לָכֶם, רֹאשׁ חֳדָשִׁים: רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לָכֶם, לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה

And YHUH said to Moshe and to Aharon, in the land of Egypt saying; this month is for you the head of all the months; it is the first for you, of the months of the year.​

Exodus-Shemot 34:22-The Fourth Torah Witness

וְחַג שָׁבֻעֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה לְךָ, בִּכּוּרֵי קְצִיר חִטִּים; וְחַג, הָאָסִיף-תְּקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה

​And the Chag of Weeks [Shavuot] you shall do for yourself; the firstfruits of the wheat harvest; and the Chag of the Ingathering at [around] the [fall] tekufah-turn ​of the year.

-Genesis-Beresheth-8:22- The Fifth Torah Witness-The 4 Seasons

  עֹד, כָּל-יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ:  זֶרַע וְקָצִיר וְקֹר וָחֹם וְקַיִץ וָחֹרֶף,וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה-לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ

While the earth remains [before and after the flood] seedtime [Spring] and harvest [Fall]; cold and heat; summer and winter; day and night will not cease. [The seasons have never changed and the day ALWAYS goes before evening and night!].
________________________________________

​                    ​               What About These MOON Verses. Do You Just  Ignore Them? 

​Psalm 89:37- IT shall be established le-olam-va-ed as the yarayach, and as a faithful witness in the shamayim. Selah.

In verse 36 it is David’s seed that is made into a faithful witness preserved IN THE HEAVENS or the throne; just like the moon is in the heavens FOREVER; so the heavens is the place of the preserving of the faithful witness or YHUH’s throne-promises-Word FOREVER. This verse does not claim that the moon is forever faithful for telling time, as it remains sick and dysfunctional giving unbibical 29 day months and 13 month years, which if blindly followed, will cause everyone to miss the appointed times of YHUH. The actual lunation astronomically speaking is 28 days! Not the required 30 days of Scripture!

Psalm 136:9 – The yarayach-moon and cochavim to rule by night: for His rachamim endures le-olam-va-ed.

​This verse DOES NOT CLAIM the moon as THE ruler of the night by its own light. Read it again! The stars rule the night and the moon joins that ruler as a lesser co-regent, as it reflects the sun’s light, along with the night ruler in TANDEM. The night ruler is established in Torah Gen 1:14-16 [as THE LESSER LIGHT-NAMELY THE STARS] not in Psalms. Remember the biblical rule of first mention.

Psalm 104:19 – He created the yarayach-moon for moadim: the shemesh knows its going down.
20 You make darkness, and it is night: in it all the beasts of the forest do creep.
21 The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their food from El.

The moon IS a SIGN for NIGHT HUNTING BY THE NIGHT CREATURES before the sunrise. These verses have ZERO to do with the appointed times of Leviticus 23 which are SOLELY SOLAR BASED. This misunderstanding has been a major erroneous assumption that somehow they refer to the feasts of YHUH.

 PSALM 81:4 AND THE RABBINIC AGENDA! 

ד תִּקְעוּ בַחֹדֶשׁ שׁוֹפָר; בַּכֵּסֶה, לְיוֹם חַגֵּנוּ

meaning blow IN-AT the MONTH the shofar, in-at the FULLNESS of the day of our feast…that means that on the Feast of Unleavened Bread in its fullness, we are to blow the shofar at our chag…in Torah a chag is only Unleavened Bread, Feast of Weeks or Tabernacles. [3 not 8 moadem]…see how slick the enemy is? The word moon appears nowhere here and neither does the term “full moon.” Of course the rabbis translate it as full moon, to make you a disciple of the Antiochus Epiphanies lunar calendar, FORCED ON JUDAISM after the Macabbean victory. It can also mean blow the shofar at the fullness of the feast of Unleavened Bread, based on verses 5-6 which refers to the Exodus. Nothing to do with anybody’s moon!​

                                                  This says YHUH To His Eved Sholiach Moshe:

“The greatest find at Qumran was not the community rules and regulations or any such thing but the restoration of my Shabbats [monthly solar dates]. Have you not noticed and have you not heard, that scholars did not declare that truth says YHUH? Rather they declared finding some solar calendar that was noticeably different and some man-made rules. But I declare to you the purpose of my allowing them to find, the scrolls, is to declare my appointed times regarding the sincere restoration of the Shabbat day when the dates were recorded and hidden in the earth for such a time as this; the discovering of the priestly Enochian ancient Shabbats and the dates [of the solar month] that my priests ministered on Shabbat, were not of interest to man;  the scholars and the religious did not proclaim what I wanted declared for the joy and rejoicing of my people and their preparation says YHUH. But you and your fellows, you shall and must proclaim it says ​​YHUH Tzevaoth!

Your Employer CANNOT Stop You From Keeping The Creation Week Shabbat!

​Did you know a lot of USA believers who want to keep the Shabbat the day YHUH actually rested, CANNOT BE DENIED by federal law? You cannot be fired or denied time off for Shabbat, or any day, as per the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. So let’s stop the excuses and get busy with Abba’s business!!  ​http://www.workplacefairness.org/religious-discrimination

The only way they can legally deny you off, is if the employer can PROVE to a court, that by you taking Torah Shabbat off, that it will cause them undue loss like bankruptcy, which in most cases is a case they cannot prove!

ALSO……………………..Jeremiah 6:16-18 speaks of returning to the ancient paths, where we will find or recover the good-mature ways of our Messiah, the patriarchs, prophets and Zadokite priests. Since that is true, we know they were experts at tracking the circuits of the sun, in order to determine and establish all the appointed times and weekly 7th day Shabbats, with a clear declaration of day 364 on a Tuesday and Aviv 1 the very next Wednesday during The Equinox Week, when the old year transits into the new year after EXACTLY 364 DAYS HAVE BEEN DECLARED!

16 This says YHUH: Stand in The Derech-Way, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the tov derech, and have your walk in it, and you shall find rest for your beings. But they said, We will not walk in it!
17 Also I set watchmen [Hebrew-Netsarim] over you, saying, Listen to the sound of the shofar. But they said, We will not listen!  RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

****Here are a few more Scriptures teaching us not to use heathen data but our own Zadokite priests and calculations in the camp of the redeemed; this high calling remains our responsibility collectively as a people!

Shemot-Exodus Ch. 20:
8 [Daled] Remember the Yom Ha-Shabbats [LXX] [52 weekly – not 53 as some teachand annual to shomer [guard-view] them as kadosh.
9 Six days shall you labor, and do all your work:
10 But the seventh yom is the Shabbat of YHUH your Elohim: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your male eved, nor your female eved, nor your cattle, nor your ger, nor a convert that is within your gates: RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

Shemot-Exodus Ch. 31:
16 Therefore the children of Yisrael shall shomer [guard-view] the Shabbat, to observe [guard-view] the Shabbat throughout their generations, for an everlasting brit.
17 It is an ot [visible sign] between Me and the children of Yisrael le-olam-va-ed-forever: for in six days YHUH made the shamayim and the earth, and on the seventh yom He rested, and was refreshed. RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

Devarim-Deuteronomy Ch. 5:
12 Shomer [guard-view] Ha-Shabbat to set it apart, as YHUH your Elohim has commanded you.
13 Six days you shall labor, and do all your work:
14 But the seventh yom-day is the Shabbat of YHUH your Elohim: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male eved, nor your female eved, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle, nor the ger that is within your gates; that your male eved and your female eved may rest as well as you. 
15 And remember that you were an eved in the land of Mitzrayim, and that YHUH your Elohim brought you out from there through a mighty hand and by an outstretched Arm: therefore YHUH your Elohim commanded you to shomer [guard-view] Yom Ha-Shabbat. RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

JUBILEES-YOVLEEM CH. 29:
15 And he sent to his abba Yitschaq of all his substance, clothing and food, and meat and drink and milk and butter and cheese and some dates of the valley.
16 And to his eema Rivkah also four times a year, between the times of the monthsbetween ploughing and reaping and between autumn and the rain (season) and between winter and spring, to the tower of Avraham. YATI Restored Version Of Jubilees With True Names

    Some Interesting Tidbits!

More Proof That Day 4-Our Modern Wednesday Was Lit Continually In The Temple-

The lamps of the menorah were lit daily from fresh, consecrated olive oil and burned from evening until morning, according to Exodus 27:21.

PROOF THAT THEY TOLD TIME BY THE 7 BRANCH MENORAH NOT THE RABBINICAL CALENDAR!!!! 

The Roman-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus states that three of the seven lamps were allowed to burn during the day also; [13] however, according to one opinion in the Talmud (Rashi, Tractate Shabbat 22b), only the center lamp was left burning all day, into which as much oil was put as into the others. Although all the other lights were extinguished, that light continued burning oil, in spite of the fact that it had been kindled first.

DAY 4 OF THE WEEK-MIDDLE LIGHT OF THE MENORAH LIT FIRST AND BURNED ALL DAY AND NIGHT AS THE SIGN OF THE MESSIAH [WHO CAME ON DAY 4 OR 4,000 YEARS AFTER ADAM AND EVE], THE SHABBAT AND AVIV 1!

This miracle according to the Talmud (Tractate Menahot 86b) was taken as a sign that The Shechinah-Glory rested over Israel.[14] It was called the Ner Hama’aravi (Western lamp) because of the direction of its wick. This lamp was also referred to as the Ner Elohim (Lamp of El).

YAHUSHA THE ALEF TAF DAY 4 CALLED THE LIGHT OF ELOHIM BURNS CONTINUALLY!

Also mentioned in I Samuel 3:3. The miracle of the Ner Hama’aravi ended about 40 years before the destruction of the Temple (30 CE) according to the Talmud (Tractate Yoma 39a), “Our Rabbis taught: During the last forty years before the destruction of The Second Temple (that is to say from around 30 CE the very year Yahusha died) the lot [‘For YHUH’] did not come up in the right hand of the priest; nor did the crimson-colored strap become white; nor did the westernmost light shine” or that middle light of Messiah!

BECAUSE THEY PUT THE LIGHT OUT, DAY 4, ALEF TAF, STOPPED STAYING ON 24/7….THIS PROVES BEYOND A SHADOW OF A DOUBT THAT AT THE TIME OF YAHUSHA, THEY KNEW THAT TIME AND THE TORAH WEEK CENTERED AROUND DAY 4 of Week One-Modern Wednesday, NOT DAY 1 of Week One!!! SHEMA YISRAEL!!!!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menorah_(Temple)

4Q394 1-2 (Cave 4)-Note yet another SIGN– Where was the Torah Shabbat confirmed in the DSS? Cave 4 corresponding to day 4 of week 1. Another YAH-Incidence!

From Professor Rachel Elior a rabbinical Jew-“The present Jewish calendar is not matching the old Jewish priestly calendar. This ancient priestly calendar was replaced by the Greek lunar calendar, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanies by force” and later on by the sages, who chose the lunar calendar based on the people’s observation and not by pre-calculated calculations.”

Passion Week Proves the Zadokite Priestly Times!

Picture

For sincere questions write to: sholiach@yourarmstoisraelglobal.com 

Teaching Articles On The Shabbat

DOES YHUH REST ON HIS OWN SHABBAT? .docx

Download File


WHAT ABOUT THOSE MOON VERSES .docx

Download File


CONSTELLATIONS PROVE THAT THE YEAR BEGINS IN PISCES .pdf

Download File


THREE SPRING EQUINOX TESTS GIVEN .pdf

Download File


THE FIRST OF THE WEEK OR SHABBAT MORNING .pdf

Download File


SHABBAT AS YAHUSHA KEPT IT .docx

Download File


GUIDELINES FOR SHABBAT OBSERVANCE .pdf

Download File


PROOF OF THE RESURRECTION ON SHABBAT BEFORE DAWN .docx

Download File


THE TEMPLE’S DESTRUCTION & MESSIAH YAHUSHA’S DEATH .docx

Download File


NEW PASSION WEEK CHART 4-30-18.pdf

Download File

 

BRACHOT OF  YAHUWAH  (Click PDF)

 A Prayer to Baruch our Souls (Psalm 103)

We are the most baruk (most favored) of Abba Yahuwah. The sword of Abba Yahuwah is drawn against those that seek after our souls. The spear of Abba Yahuwah (Hab. 3:11 and Joshua 8:18, 26) is aimed against those the evil one has sent to persecute us. No evil communication shall be successful against us because we are Mar (master) YAH’s servants. No curses that are spoken against us, released towards us, or sent our way by the wicked or the religious will be successful against us this day or any day! They will not light/land upon us but slide down to the ground, sterile and non-effective.

We are under Abba Yahuwah His authority. We are under MessiYah Yahushua His blood, and we are under the whole panoply of the armor of Yahuwah. Every weapon formed against us will misfire today or any day. We declare that we are Mar YAH’s darling (Psalm 35:17). We are the favored of Yahuwah (Exodus 19:5)

WE declare that a mighty Yoseph mantle is upon us. We are set apart for such a time as this. In the spirit world of Yetzirah, we walk with a Tallit of many colors. We have the divine council and prudent understanding of Abba Yahuwah to prevail and solve mysteries, we have the strength to persevere, and the mind to excel and succeed.

Now, we baruch our whole being and declare that our:

Blood flow right!

Heart beat right!

Bones are strong!

mind is clear and sound!

Healthy Muscles carry us where we need to go!

Healthy Skin insulate, protect and seal us!

Healthy Organs and all within us function the way Yahuwah intended when He put us in our mothers womb!

Youth is renewed like the eaglesnow!

Yes, we ask Abba Yahuwah to baruch us for length of days. We will live a baruched life today with a crown of righteousness on our head, a garment of Praise above us, and a Tallit across our shoulders to do what we are called to do. Mighty messengers of Yahuwah are all around us keeping our steps and prospering our way. We have great stamina. A wall of Ruach (Spirit of Yahuwah) fire is about us, and a canopy of Ruach fire is over us. The banner of Yahuwah is over our heads like a personal rainbow. We ask Abba to baruch us this day for an encounter with Yahuwah. We baruch our countenance to draw in from that encounter and our face to glow with Yahuwah’s beauties, esteem and honor. His beauties, esteem and honor shall be seen upon us and it shall influence all who come in contact with us this day or any day.

We ask Abba to baruch us to be in the right place at the right time and to walk with a right spirit before our fellow man and family. We will walk right into destiny and divine appointments from Yahuwah today. If there is catastrophe today, we shall not be there when it happens. We shall be hidden in Yahuwah’s pavilion.

If there is violence today, we will not be there; the celestial mighty messengers of Yahuwah shall direct us away from the path of the violent. We will hear of it, but it will not come near to us. We are not under the circumstances, under the weather, or under fire. We are mounting up, and we have a broad wingspan. We will rise above it all. HalleluYah.

Even though our enemies may spread their nets for our feet, but we will see their pit and step around their trap. We shall escape; yet they shall fall into the very hole they prepared for us. This day, Abba Yahuwah is in the process of frustrating the tokens of the liars. He is bringing great controversy to our enemiescamps. Confusion totally drowns those that would dare to tamper with Abba Yahuwah’s purposes for our life.

We also declare that we do not just believe we are baruched; we walk it out. We will demonstrate it. We decree it to be so. We speak that the mountains be brought down, our valleys be brought up, and the path of Abba Yahuwah be made straight in our lives. Our way is not hard nor the path difficult.

We are alive by Abba Yahuwah’s decree. We will stay alive and be active and productive. Our life will be full of excellent deeds and miracles so that when Abba Yahuwah decrees our time is up we will not linger nor languish, but have treasures to lay at our Masters feet. It will be a life well lived! We baruch ourselves in HaShem /the Name Yahushua ha Mossiach ! Omein!

We further declare and decree that Abba

Yahuwah’s barukot rest upon us this day and stay on forever. We are pleasing to Abba Yahuwah and He enjoys our fellowship. We are well-favored and more than able to receive His abundant provision. Yahuwah’s messengers accompany us on our right hand and on our left. They shall guide us! Abba Yahuwah’s tovness/ loving kindness and deep caring and compassion of Yahuwah shall follow close

behind us and be the guardians between us and our past.

Abba Yahuwah has determined that we shall have great success because we move in Emunah/the believe of Aloahiym and in strong courage. Our eyes shall see the salvation of Yahuwah. He shall keep us safely under His wings and pinions. I declare

this day that we are protected and delivered from the

evil of the day for the rest of our lives. We shall not stumble nor fall, for Ruach ha Qodesh / The SPIRIT of Yahuwah has anointed our eyes with eye salve to see clearly and has given us ears of the Ruach to hear precisely. We will be called Chokhmah /highly intelligent/excellent in our generation.

Our soul will rest in Yahuwah’s shalom. Abba Yahuwah has declared us to be strong and pleasing in His sight. We will eat the fruit of His promises in the land of the living and will enjoy long life and length of days because we have wholly trusted in Yahuwah our Abba. Our habitation shall be a place where we will rest in His love, find

tikvah /positive great expectations for tomorrow, and delights/ jubilee that shall strengthen us as we rest upon our bed. He shall restore our soul and give us shalom/rest in the stillness and quietness of our home.

In our prayer chamber, the Ruach ha Qodesh / the Spirit of Yahuwah shall birth a creative and powerful mind and give us sound ideas that will bring us great favor. He shall give us fresh anointings and baruch our ministry with great results. HalleluYAH! Abba Yahuwah is pleased with us and has placed His Name upon our foreheads. We will call upon Him and He

will show us great and mighty things we know not of.

In HaShem /the Name Yahushua ha Mossiach we pray! Omein!

Edited from: www.withoneaccord.org

There are over 100 references to the weekly Shabbat in Scripture!
And there is not a single verse that helps us establish dates for them or dates of the month for them as with all other appointed times.
Here are just a few examples:
Shemot 20:8-11; Shemot 31:12-17; Shemot 35:2-3; Wayiqra 19:3; Wayiqra 23:1-3; Wayiqra 26:2; Devarim 5:12-15
So the only HINT CLUE SIGN we are given is in conjunction with the 1st Shabbat in Week one when it is called the 7th day, not Shabbat.
It is from there that we must make a decision on just how to count to 7

Why Does The Torah Year Start On Day 4 Week One?

The first month of the Torah year is Aviv the month of the Exodus. Shemot-Exodus 出12:1 And HWHY spoke to Moshe and Aharon in the land of Mitzrayim, saying, 2 This month shall be for you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year for you.
Understanding this is a key! The wording in Deuteronomy申 16: 1 amazingly confirms all this by referring to the OT-VISIBLE SIGN [direct east-west shadow] of the Aviv, the turn of the year. We read: Deuteronomy 16:1:
Shomer the month of the Aviv-OT, and shomer the Pesach to YHWH your Elohim: for in the month of Aviv YHWH your Elohim brought you forth out of Mitzrayim by night. RSTNE
Now you may be asking yourself… Why are they starting the year on Aviv 1 Day 4 of the First Week of the Year and not on the first day of the first week of the New Year?  Great question! We will let the Scriptures answer that for us.  Look at Beresheet-Genesis:
Genesis 1:14 And Elohim said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the shamayim to divide the yom from the night; and let them be for signs-witnesses-otot [visible signs], and for moadim, and for [all] days, and years:
Genesis 1:15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the shamayim to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
Genesis 1:16 And Elohim made-asah [assigned] two great lights; the greater light to rule the yom, and the lesser light to rule the night: therefore namely the cochavim.
Genesis 1:17 And Elohim set them in the firmament of the shamayim to give light upon the earth,
Genesis 1:18 And to rule over the yom and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and Elohim saw that it was tov.
Genesis 1:19 And the evening and the morning were Yom Reeve-DAY FOUR.  RSTNE 
YHWH assigned the lights on Day 4 of week one; therefore no Shabbats or feast counts, seasons, days or months can commence until then, although days 1-3 are included in the creation week, being the last 3 days of the previous year. All weekly Shabbats months and feasts must be counted from this point, which is ALWAYS AVIV 1, the yearly day of The Spring Equinox and always Yom Revee-Day 4 of week 1.
It was commonly known custom and practice to determine Shabbat based on Aviv 1 Day 4 of the first week, so there was no need for Adon Yahushua to change anything. All the people and synagogues were following a 7 day solar cycle based on Aviv 1 the equinox and day 4 of the week and recall that this was way before the Julian calendar. Surely the Jews and Zadokites would never use the 8 day cycle Roman calendar nor the Julian Roman updated one in 49 BC. So we are left with unanimous agreement that in 1st century Judea, that the Shabbat was on set dates of the month, every 7 days from Aviv 1 coinciding with Day 4 of week 1, a feat that will not work on any rabbinical (Hillel) or gentile (Gregorian) calendar. Seems like the corrupt temple leaders used the lunar times for the feasts but solar based weekly Shabbats were common knowledge and the only viable option among all sects in Israel and thus no need to change or challenge it. The moon based Shabbats did not work as they did not maintain a 7 day unbroken cycle of days, as the last week of each month had an 8 or 9 day gap before the first alleged Shabbat of the new month. The Zadokites would never have used this comical method.
Yovleem-Jubilees 2:8-These four great works YHWH created on the 3rd day. And on the 4th day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the; Jubilees 2:9 Light from the darkness. And YHWH appointed the SUN TO BE A GREAT SIGN on the earth for days and; Jubilees 2:10 For [weekly] Shabbats and for months- the Chodesh/renewal- and for feasts and for years and for the Shabbat of years and for the Jubilees and for all seasons of the years. And it divides the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made-assigned-assah on the 4th day.
Leading Dead Sea Scholar and Israeli Post By & Professor Rachel Elior confirms this; I quote from Professor Elior in a letter to us: “All what you wrote is correct. The priestly calendar found among the Dead Sea Scrolls is earlier in number of centuries, than the Christian calendar. You are right, the cycle of the Sabbaths should be starting as follows: The year starts in the spring in the month of Aviv=Nisan. It should always start on Day 4 Week # 1, (the day when the luminaries were created-assigned) which is always the day after the Vernal Equinox. Thus the first of the month is Day 4, 1/1, The second is Day 5, 1/2, The third is Day 6, 1/3, the fourth is Day 7, the first Shabbat of the New Year on 1/4, Aviv 4 and every 7 days after that.”

The first Shabbat is Always on Aviv 4 & Every 7 days After That

 

                 When is the True Genesis Ch. 1 Shabbat Day? 
Count to 7…. 1, 2 ,3, 4, 5, 6, 7-Shabbat! The Shabbat is the 7th day! That is what everyone is telling you right? That is easy right! Not so fast!!
When you start the cycle and when you end it is paramount. In the time of Adon Yahushua, for all of Judea, as well as for the exiled Zadokite priests, there were only a few options from whence to take a 7 day cycle. They are as follows:
-The Old Roman calendar available since the days of Romulus in 700 BC, which has 8 days a week, lettered A-H. No priests of the House of Aaron, true to Torah and YHWH would do such a silly thing.
-The Julian Calendar that replaced the Roman Calendar. That also is an impossibility, as it was established in 49 BC and had pagan deities assigned to each week day and month, something the kohaneem that fled the pagan practices in the Temple would never use. Also the Zadokites, the legitimate priesthood authority, was in community and exile way before the Julian calendar; perhaps some 150 years or more. What did they use back then?
  • They used a separate 7 day cycle, divorced from the sun as we see today. We know that from their many writings, that all the weekly Shabbats were based on a 7 day cycle, starting with Aviv 1, concurrent to Day 4 of the first week of the year. The fact that Shabbats had assigned days of each month like the annual feasts, prove that the authority of the House of Aaron, the sons of Zadok would never use  a separate 7 day pagan cycle that contradicted the Torah requirement, that ALL DAYS be determined by the great sign of the Shemesh-Sun [Genesis 1:14-19]
  • WE WILL ONLY SAY THIS ONE TIME AND ONE TIME ALONE! IF THERE WAS A 7 DAY SELF PERPETUATING CYCLE, WITH NO CONNECTION AT ALL TO THE SPRING EQUINOX OR THE SUN ALREADY IN EXISTENCE BEFORE YHWH ASSIGNED THE LUMINARIES FOR [ALL] DAYS, WEEKS AND SEASONS ON DAY 4, THEN THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN NO NEED FOR HIM TO MAKE THAT ASSIGNMENT IN GENESIS. 1:14-19. IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A FUTILE, SENSELESS AND REPETITIVE WORK OF CREATION! IF ALL DAYS ALREADY EXISTED WITHOUT A SUN OR A SPRING EQUINOX, THEN AN ASSIGNMENT BASED ON THE SUN RECORDED IN THE TORAH IS A LIE AND MAKES NO SENSE. RATHER THAN ARGUE THIS POINT, WE CONSIDER THE 7 DAY PERPETUAL CYCLE PROPONENTS THAT BELIEVE IN A 7 DAY CYCLE UNRELATED TO THE FIRST WEEK DESCRIBED IN TORAH, TO BE LYING, AS OPPOSED TO THE CLEAR REVEALED WORD OF YHWH! ROMANS 3:4! Let YHWH BE TRUE AND EVERY MAN A LIAR!
  • Therefore the only logical conclusion is that to determine the weekly Shabbat is as easy counting to 7. True! But we now know that the correct starting point and the correct ending point directly from Torah and that makes all the difference in the world. For if a 7 day cycle were all that was needed to keep a Sabbath, then the Catholics and the church will be happy to start you and end you on a Sunday to Saturday cycle & the Muslims on a Saturday to Friday cycle. So where you start and stop is paramount to your simple 1-7 count. Thanks to the Zadokite priesthood from Aaron, Kohate and Phineas, an eternal priesthood of atonement and shalom, of which Yahushua is now the Head, we now know we start on Aviv 1 Day 4  of week one and the Torah Shabbat is always 3 days later and every 7 days after that from not throughout eternity. So count away Yisrael!

Who has The Post Byity Over The Times of YHWH?

There is only one authority over the Torah/Creation division of times- that authority is our Creator YHWH Himself.  He then taught it to the man Enoch, giving him charge to instill this knowledge to other men his students. The knowledge of the perpetual observed Shabbat, Months and kadosh feast days.
Exodus 31:13-Speak also to the sons of Israel, saying, “Truly you shall keep My Shabbats. For it is a sign [visible OT] between Me and you throughout your generations, to know that I am YHWH who sanctifies you.”
Heb 5:5  So also the Messiah did not extol Himself to become High Priest, but it was He who said to Him, “You are My Son, today I have brought You forth.”1 Footnote: 1See 1:5, Ps. 2:7.
Heb 5:6  As He also says in another place, “You are a priest forever according to the order of Malkitseḏeq,”1 Footnote: 1Ps. 110:4.
Heb 5:7  who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His reverent fear, Heb 5:8  though being a Son, He learned obedience by what He suffered.
Heb 5:9  And having been perfected, He became the Causer of everlasting deliverance to all those obeying Him,
Heb 5:10  having been designated by Elohim a High Priest “according to the order of Malkitseḏeq,”
We have been grafted into that order, by faith or by birth for some few. Matthew 16: 16-20; Revelation 1:6. Just like the Olive Tree has natural and re-grafted branches, so does the eternal priesthood of Zadok, descended from Aaron, Elazar and Pinchus-Phineus Numbers Ch. 25:6-13. To us and to them is given the eternal covenant of shalom, proclamation of times and blood atonement! According to Numbers 25, that authority in biblical Israel lies with Yahushua those like us who love Him and keep His commands, all descended via grafting into an eternal never ending order.
Numbers 10:1-10 is crystal clear; from the start only the sons of Aaron and later Zadok alone could call the camp and assembly together for Shabbats & other appointed times such as war, with the sounding of 2 silver trumpets! We see that same authority after this age in the promised Millennial Temple in such places as: Ezekiel Ch. 40-48, where the kohanem-priests, the sons of Zadok under Yahushua the “Prince and King Zadokite,” oversee kingdom millennial worship at the appointed times which they alone declare.
( also see that: Heb1:5, Ps. 2:7. Ps. 110:4. Jer 33:17-18, Eze_44:15  But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of my sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from me, they shall come near to me to minister unto me, and they shall stand before me to offer unto me the fat and the blood, saith the YHWH Elohim: Eze_48:11  It shall be for the priests that are sanctified of the sons of Zadok; which have kept my charge, which went not astray when the children of Israel went astray, as the Levites went astray. )

We can see from the excerpts of the Dead Sea Scrolls that the year starts on Aviv 1 which is always the day after the Spring Equinox and which is also always Day 4 of  the creation week. The Shabbats listed below are eternal and have priestly authority; you will note that they match the current Shabbats listed in our lists as well.
Documents 4Q320 AND 4Q321-THE ZADOKITE SCROLLS CONFIRM THE TORAH SHABBATS BASED ON AVIV 1 DAY 4 OF WEEK ONE ON A 7 DAY CYCLE! THESE SHABBATS NEVER CHANGE & NEVER FALL ON A CHODESH OR ANNUAL MOED!!
  1. [On the sixteenth of it (of the second month): sabbath]二月十六日安息日
I.5 On the twenty-third of  it: sabbath二月二十三日安息日
On the thirtieth of  it: sabbath二月三十日安息日
I.10 [On] the seventh of the third month: sabbath三月七日安息日
On the fourteenth of  it: sabbath三月十四日安息日
I.15 On the fifteenth of it: Feast of Weeks三月十五五旬节
On the twenty-(II.) [f]irs[t] of  it: sabbath三月二十一日安息日
II.5 [On] the twenty-eighth of  it: sabbath三月二十八日安息日
The first of the sabbath and the second day and the third are to be added
II.10 And the season is complete: ninety-one days 季节转换日 (第91日)
II.15 On the first of the fourth month: Memorial Day On the四月一日纪念日
  1. fourth III. of it: [sabbath] 四月四日安息日
On the e[leventh] of  it: sabbath四月十一日安息日
III.5  On the eighteenth of  it: sabbath四月十八日安息日
On the twenty-fifth of  it: sabbath四月二十五日安息日
III.10 On the second of  the fift[h] month: sabbath五月二日安息日
On the third of it: Feast of Wine, first of sabbath 五月三日葡萄酒初熟节
  1. [On the ninth of it: sabbath] 9th of Av a weekly Shabbat confirms history another proof of solar Shabbat. 五月九日安息日
On the sixteenth of  it: sabbath五月十六日安息日
IV.5 On the twenty-third of  it: sabbath五月二十三日安息日
On the thirtieth of  it: sabbath五月三十日安息日
IV.10 On the seventh of  the six month sabbath六月七日安息日
On the fourteenth of  it: sabbath六月十四日安息日
On the twenty-first of  it: V. sabbath六月二十一日安息日
V.5 On the twenty-second of it: Feast of Oil, fir[st of sab]bath六月二十二日橄榄油初熟节
Afterwards: offering of Wood之后木材奉献节6

4Q326(4QCalendricalDoc Ea)4QCalendrical

1.   /ln the four[th]. /ln the first of the four[th…On the 4th of it a sabbath]

2.On the 11th of it a sabba[th…On the evening of the 15th]

3. the festival of unleavened breads .the fou[rth] day (of the week).[On the 18th ofit a sabbath .On the 25th of it]  4,a sabbath. On the 26th of it the festival of b[arley ,(the day) after the sabbath.] 5[…]…Blank ln the second (month)begin[ning…]

Parchment4Q400, “A text belonging to the Instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on the First Sabbath,sung on the Fourth of the First Month.

Parchment 4Q401, ” A text belonging tothe instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on the Fourth Sabbath, sung on the Twenty -Fifth of the First Month.”

Parchment, Mas lk Frag 1,” A text belonging to the Instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on the Sixth Sabbath sung on the Ninth of the Second Month.”

“A text belonging to the Instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on

the Seventh Sabbath, sung on the Sixteenth of the Second Month.”

A text belonging to the Instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on

the Eighth Sabbath, sung on the Twenty-Third of the Second Month.”

“A portion of the Song for the Ninth Sabbath, which fall on

the Thirtieth of the Second Month.”

“The text belonging to the Instructor. The Song accompanying the Sacrifice on

the Twelfth Sabbath,sung on the Twenty-First of the Third Month.”

 

zadok-priestly-calendar-year-6__1_

The 2018 Zadok Priestly Calendar

An awesome confirmation is Exodus-Shemot Ch 16 where Israel arrives on Day 15 of Month 2 which is a travel and heavy work day not a rest day, as anyone that has ever moved knows [sure cannot be a lunar shabbat either (: ]. Then Moshe-Moses says gather manna today a double portion because TOMORROW Month 2 Day 16 is a Shabbat to YHWH. Exodus 16:1-30. Read it for yourself. The ONLY way that Month 2 Day 16 can be a weekly Shabbat is if you count back every 7 days to Aviv 4, being the first Shabbat of the year. If you start the year on day one of week one as some do, the math doesn’t work. But if you start the year as Torah commands on Day 4 of week 1, Shabbat the 7th day of the week will always be Aviv 4; six Shabbats later is Month 2 Day 16, confirming the Torah times guarded by the House of Zadok are correct and eternal! Based on this evidence we can establish the annual TORAH DATES of all 52 Shabbats in a year. Confirm this with the chart below!

PS.1  if you look at Month 5 Day 9 what the rabbinate refers to as the 9th of Av, you will see it is a Shabbat, which confirms the rabbinical claims that the second temple was destroyed on a Shabbat. Which further shows why Yahushua was keeping Shabbat with the rest of Jewish Israel as it had not yet been discarded!
From Shabbat to Shabbat: the Day of Atonement (A High Shabbat to the next day: weekly Shabbat )
P.S.2. Lev 16:29 “And this shall be for you a law forever: In the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you afflict your beings, and do no work, the native or the stranger who sojourns among you.
Lev 16:30
“For on that day he makes atonement for you, to cleanse you, to be clean from all your sins before יהוה. Lev 16:31 “It is a Sabbath of rest for you, and you shall afflict your beings – a law forever.
From these markers you can count every 7 days forwards or backwards for the Torah Shabbat!!! This only works if the ORIGINAL SHABBAT WAS AVIV 4! We would encourage all to seek YHWH on this matter regarding the rediscovery of the Torah Shabbat!
There YOU HAVE IT RIGHT BELOW! Documented dates for the first 8 weekly Shabbats of each year, documented from Torah and the Dead Sea Scrolls! HALLELUYAH THE MATH DOESN’T LIE! If the calendar you use doesn’t line the Shabbat up with these biblical dates it is not yet correct; more work awaits you! The true Shabbat never floats!

 

****The Shabbat was 3 days after Day 4 as always. On the priestly calendar, Passover is always on Yom Shleeshe Day 3 from year to year. This was not a Lord’s Supper, a communion or a model Passover. It was the correct one at the correct time, whereas the lunar based rabbinics were one day late, allowing Yahushua to keep the commands perfectly. He ate at the right time and died at the time, that the false temple authority was killing lambs, showing that Yahushua was a Lamb wrongfully killed and placed under their false time and non Zadokite authority. It was the powers of darkness that He submitted to because of His LOVE for us! Resurrection Day was Aviv 19 because Yahushua was not FIRSTFRUITS but the First Fruit, meaning His resurrection did not have to be tied to the feast, which was agricultural. This has been a major misunderstanding.
All other models fail in some manner, as they do not use the sign of Jonah or they spiritualize the 72 hours into 3 years of ministry in Jerusalem, changing the grave to the city, because it does not work. Others assign it to PARTS of 3 days. Passion Week is proof positive that Yahushua followed the Creator’s-His own times!  DO NOT SUPERIMPOSE ANY ROMAN NAMES here, as YHWH has made sure that nothing works respecting His times that dare to use anything but correct numbers!
Check the priestly Torah calendar in Month 1 Day 18 and see if it lines up with the weekly Shabbat and remember that the Zadokites were not necessarily followers of Messiah Yahushua, although some were Acts 6:7.

By M.Y. Koniuchowsky 

( PLEASE CLICK THE ABOVE LINK TO VISIT THE WEBSITE OF THIS AUTHOR)  

The Times of Torah-Enoch & The Order of Malki-Tzedek 

BY M.Y. Koniuchowsky

Picture

Picture

We have been studying & making progress in grasping all there is regarding Torah time & we share with you each piece as He, our loving Abba, reveals it to us. This is now our 34th year of study on this vital matter & so we bring you our latest & most up to date understanding, building & not negating past revelations of time restoration!


 

The weekly Shabbat starting the new Torah year Aviv 1 will fall on Saturdays, as the Spring Equinox will be Tuesday March 20th 2018 and Aviv 1 WEDNESDAY March 21st 2018, making Shabbat on Saturdays this year and every other year as well, since the Torah based Year CANNOT START ON ANY DAY OF THE WEEK OTHER THAN DAY 4, WHICH WE HAVE PROVEN CORRESPONDS TO OUR MODERN WEDNESDAY!

From our studies so far we can assert the following few details as facts:

-The Vernal Equinox is the sign that a New Torah Year can or is in its right season to begin.
-Both The Vernal & Fall Equinox is confirmed by the shadows throughout the day making a straight line. A second witness is that only on the Spring and Fall Equinoxes does the moon rise in the east, in the same exact window that the sun sets in the west. A 3rd witness is that the year begins in the constellation of Pisces.

​-Every 3 years Aviv 1 starts with a full moon! That when the full moon occurs on the same day as the Spring Equinox, Aviv 1 occurs, not the following Wednesday.
-That the first 4th day of the week [the first Wednesday] after the Spring Equinox is always Aviv 1 each and every year.
-That the Torah year always starts on a 4th Day-Wednesday & ends on a 3rd Day-Tuesday & is exactly 364 days as required by Torah & Enoch.
-That the Spring Equinox can occur on any day of the week, with Aviv 1 always being the following Wednesday [Day 4].
-That YHUH masterfully built in intercalation and there is absolutely no need to ever add days and years, as long as we wait each year until the first Wednesday after the Spring Tekufah. Over 6-7 years this method adjusts itself!


The Eternal Times Of YHUH  Based on Torah & Enoch As Given by YHUH-For March 21, 2018-March 20, 2019 364 Day Year-Year # 6 in the current 6 year Zadokite Priestly Cycle.
​ 

**The Solar times of Yah do not ever use the moon for times and seasons, as this is forbidden in Scripture in such places as Torah & Jubilees Chapter 6! The 6 year priestly cycle First Chronicles Ch. 24:1-19, uses the moon phases of full and dark moons to establish when the Zadokite priestly order starts their assigned week. These 2 checkpoints occur monthly, to make sure the priestly orders are ready, prepared and correct in their turn/watch! These 2 monthly check pointswere not used for time determination, as these were the Zadokite priests, who would never use lunar calendars, which is the primary reason they abandoned the 2nd Temple in Jerusalem. To the true priesthood therefore, neither the full nor dark moons are new months & moreover are not to be observed like the fallen watchers. They were mathematically calculated and recorded to and for the kohaneem-priests who would then be on time in their commanded order, NOT OBSERVED AS THE FALLEN WATCHERS DID AND TAUGHT MEN TO DO! However……there IS IN FACT A UNIQUE PURPOSE FOR THE MOON, PREVIOUSLY NOT SEEN NOR UNDERSTOOD! 

***The moon incredibly enough as it appears in the priestly order establishes the eternality of the perpetual 7 day weekly cycle! The calculated dark and full moonphases are included by those solar calendar advocates only to verify and display that the 7 day week has never changed and that these phases occur on the same corresponding days of the modern week as in Torah times & as in Messiah Yahusha’s time, as long as we make super sure to use the correct year in each six year priestly cycle!


Realigning With More Heavenly Evidence (PT 1 of 2)
Realineándonos Con Más Evidencia Del Shamayim/Firmamento ​(PT 1 de 2) 

Realigining With More Heavenly Evidence Part 2 – M.Y. Koniuchowsky

****An easy way to see which year of the cycle we are in is to see which priestly order starts it. [First Chronicles 24:1-19]

Year 6-Aphses-Happizzaz-Aviv March 21 2018-March 20th 2019
Year 1-Gamul-New Cycle Aviv March 2019
​Year 2 Yedayah-New Cycle Aviv March 2020

We agree with this awesome video teaching seen above, with one noteworthy exception. When the Spring Equinox falls on a 4th-Day Wednesday, it also becomes Aviv 1. In those years it is not necessary to wait for the following Wednesday, as that would throw everything off, including the weekday moon phases recorded by the priests! 2019 is one such year where all the signs, Spring Tekufah, Full Moon and Day 4-Wednesday all concur on the same perfect day!
The lunar phases confirm the year of the cycle we are in. Aviv 1 has a full moon in years 1 & 4 and again on year one of the new cycle. The priestly order was based on calculation of lunar phases, not the 2nd or 3rd day of a 2-3 day full moon.
REMEMBER JUBILEES 6 & OTHER PLACES FORBID ANY USE OF THE MOON TO DETERMINE TIME. WE FOLLOW A SOLAR ONLY CALENDAR! WE ARE MERELY SHOWING HOW THE PHASES APPEARED ON THE SAME DAY OF THE WEEK 2,000 YEARS AGO, AS THEY DO TODAY, SHOWING US THAT THE SHABBAT OF THAT DAY REMAINS THE SAME.
****Gregorian dates change year to year regardless of Torah patterns. Roman dates need to be reworked every year!
​****The Torah priestly cycles NEVER CHANGE & are as follows: Years 1-4 same, Years 2-5 same, Years 3-6 same.
​****If we start every year on Day 4-Modern Wednesday every year will end on a 3rd Day-Tuesday and will be exactly 364 days as required by Torah & Enoch!
****If you catch a calculation or dating error, please take the time to bring it to our attention & we will correct any possible errors!

Passion Week Proves the Zadokite Priestly Times!

Picture

For sincere questions write to: sholiach@yourarmstoisraelglobal.com 

NEW PASSION WEEK CHART 4-30-18.pdf

Download File



Teaching Articles On The Shabbat

DOES YHUH REST ON HIS OWN SHABBAT? .docx

Download File


CONSTELLATIONS PROVE THAT THE YEAR BEGINS IN PISCES .pdf

Download File


THREE SPRING EQUINOX TESTS GIVEN .pdf

Download File


THE FIRST OF THE WEEK OR SHABBAT MORNING .pdf

Download File


SHABBAT AS YAHUSHA KEPT IT .docx

Download File


GUIDELINES FOR SHABBAT OBSERVANCE .pdf

Download File


PROOF OF THE RESURRECTION ON SHABBAT BEFORE DAWN .docx

Download File


THE TEMPLE’S DESTRUCTION & MESSIAH YAHUSHA’S DEATH .docx

Download File


This says YHUH To His Eved Sholiach Moshe:
“The greatest find at Qumran was not the community rules and regulations or any such thing but the restoration of my Shabbats [monthly solar dates]. Have you not noticed and have you not heard, that scholars did not declare that truth says YHUH? Rather they declared finding some solar calendar that was noticeably different and some man-made rules. But I declare to you the purpose of my allowing them to find, the scrolls, is to declare my appointed times regarding the sincere restoration of the Shabbat day when the dates were recorded and hidden in the earth for such a time as this; the discovering of the priestly Enochian ancient Shabbats and the dates [of the solar month] that my priests ministered on Shabbat, were not of interest to man;  the scholars and the religious did not proclaim what I wanted declared for the joy and rejoicing of my people and their preparation says YHUH. But you and your fellows, you shall and must proclaim it says ​​YHUH Tzevaoth! 
WE CANNOT VIOLATE A COMMAND AND GET THE TRUE SHABBATS!

Torah commands that the Torah year can only have 364 [360 +4 season markers] days divisible by 7! Regardless of what man or religion or secularists think. We are called to follow Scriptures and obey whether we have or don’t have all the answers. Here are key verses that warn us that by following man or a 365.25 day year, we see that YHUH declares that our weekly Shabbats and all other appointed times will be off. He promises that to us, unless we obey Him and stick to the 364 day [360 +4 season markers] year despite what is going on around us! That’s if we truly desire His Shabbats!
Here are the clear commands! Jubilees 6:30-38, Enoch 72: 1-2, 32-33, Enoch 75:2-4, Enoch 82:6-7. Two key points are in order. The word EXACT OR EXACTLY OR EXACTLY IN ORDER from year to year until eternity starts, appear in every one of the 364 day year references. That can only mean that YHUH sees our understanding and obedience to 364 days and 52 weeks in a year only as our recognition that He, not science so called, is the Adon-Master over the believer’s life. It is a requirement to keep things in exact order and any departure of even one day, between now and eternity, will cause a disaster in reckoning time.  Adding a day to 364 will cause us to miss the wonderful set times. Let us be sincere but sincerely right, as we can be given the blessings of His Word and mind!
We cannot worry about the Roman dates that change due to the Gregorian calendar. We suggest counting the 364 days out from Aviv 1 each year [the very first Wednesday after the Spring Equinox] to be exact marking each New Month. The command to count only 364 days a year is not a suggestion but a command from YHUH our Abba, regardless of what other intellectuals do, say or think! [EVEN IF THERE IS A 365TH SUNRISE IN A YEAR IT MUST BE IGNORED OR NOT COUNTED, as we wait for the Sign of the Aviv granting permission to start the year on the following 4th day- Wednesday]! Torah, Enoch & Jubilees all say that every year will have 364 days forever from year to year. Man and astronomy-science say that the year is now 365.25. Who is right? Only The House of Zadok’s Everlasting Priesthood Anointing-Charge, resolves the Torah required 364 day [360 +4 season markers] Solar Year. Praise be to YHUH-Yahusha for the unfolding revelation He is and will yet provide. Enjoy the journey with us!
Your Employer CANNOT Stop You From Keeping On The Creation Week Shabbat!

Did you know a lot of USA believers who want to keep the Shabbat the day YHUH actually rested, CANNOT BE DENIED by federal law? You cannot be fired or denied time off for Shabbat, or any day, as per the CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964. So let’s stop the excuses and get busy with Abba’s business! http://www.workplacefairness.org/religious-discrimination The only way they can legally deny you off, is if the employer can PROVE to a court, that by you taking Torah Shabbat off, that it will cause them undue loss like bankruptcy, which in most cases is a case they cannot prove!
ALSO……………………..Jeremiah 6:16-18 speaks of returning to the ancient paths, where we will find or recover the good-mature ways of our Messiah, the patriarchs, prophets and Zadokite priests. Since that is true, we know they were experts at tracking the circuits of the sun, in order to determine and establish all the appointed times and weekly 7th day Shabbats, with a clear declaration of The Spring Equinox and Aviv 1 the FOLLOWING Wednesday [4th day of the week] and the 52  weekly Shabbats on dated days of the month THAT NEVER CHANGE.
16 This says YHUH: Stand in the derech, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the tov derech, and have your walk in it, and you shall find rest for your beings. But they said, We will not walk in it. 
17 Also I set watchmen over you, saying, Listen to the sound of the shofar. But they said, We will not listen.  RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok
****Here are a few Scriptures teaching us not to use heathen data but our own Zadokite priests and calculations in the camp of the redeemed; this high calling remains our responsibility collectively as a people!
Beresheet-Genesis Ch. 1:
14 And Elohim said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the shamayim to divide the yom from the night; and let them be for signs-witnesses, and for moadim, and for days, and years 
15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the shamayim to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
16 And Elohim made-asah  [assigned] two great lights; the greater light to rule the yom, and the lesser light to rule the night: therefore namely the cochavim. RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

Shemot-Exodus Ch. 20:
8 [Daled] Remember the Yom Ha-Shabbats [52 weekly and annual], to shomer [guard-view] them as kadosh.
9 Six days shall you labor, and do all your work:
10 But the seventh yom is the Shabbat of YHUH your Elohim: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your male eved, nor your female eved, nor your cattle, nor your ger, nor a convert that is within your gates: RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

Shemot-Exodus Ch. 31:
16 Therefore the children of Yisrael shall shomer [guard-view] the Shabbat, to observe [guard-view] the Shabbat throughout their generations, for an everlasting brit.
17 It is an ot [visile sign] between Me and the children of Yisrael le-olam-va-ed: for in six days YHUH made the shamayim and the earth, and on the seventh yom He rested, and was refreshed.
RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok
Devarim-Deuteronomy Ch. 5:
12 Shomer [guard-view] ha Shabbat to set it apart, as YHUH your Elohim has commanded you.
13 Six days you shall labor, and do all your work:
14 But the seventh yom is the Shabbat of YHUH your Elohim: in it you shall not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male eved, nor your female eved, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle, nor the ger that is within your gates; that your male eved and your female eved may rest as well as you. 
15 And remember that you were an eved in the land of Mitzrayim, and that YHUH your Elohim brought you out from there through a mighty hand and by an outstretched Arm: therefore YHUH your Elohim commanded you to shomer [guard-view] Yom Ha Shabbat. RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok
Devarim-Deuteronomy Ch. 16:
Shomer [guard-view] the month of the Aviv-OT [Aviv sign],  and  shomer [guard-view] the Pesach to YHUH your Elohim: for in the month of Aviv-OT [Aviv sign] YHUH ​your Elohim brought you forth out of Mitzrayim by night. RSTNE 6th Edition With Chanok

JUBILEES-YOVLEEM CH. 29:
15 And he sent to his abba Yitschaq of all his substance, clothing and food, and meat and drink and milk and butter and cheese and some dates of the valley.
16 And to his eema Rivkah also four times a year, between the times of the monthsbetween ploughing and reaping and between autumn and the rain (season) and between winter and spring, to the tower of Avraham. YATI Restored Version Of Jubilees With True Names

Interesting Tidbits!

                       –More Proof That Day 4-Our Modern Wednesday Was Lit Continually In The Temple-

The lamps of the menorah were lit daily from fresh, consecrated olive oil and burned from evening until morning, according to Exodus 27:21.
PROOF THAT THEY TOLD TIME BY THE MENORAH NOT THE RABBINICAL CALENDAR!!!! 

The Roman-Jewish historian Flavius Josephus states that three of the seven lamps were allowed to burn during the day also;[13] however, according to one opinion in the Talmud (Rashi, Tractate Shabbat 22b), only the center lamp was left burning all day, into which as much oil was put as into the others. Although all the other lights were extinguished, that light continued burning oil, in spite of the fact that it had been kindled first.
DAY 4 OF THE WEEK-MENORAH LIT FIRST AND BURNED ALL DAY AND NIGHT AS THE SIGN OF THE SHABBAT AND AVIV 1!
This miracle according to the Talmud (Tractate Menahot 86b) was taken as a sign that The Shechinah-Glory rested over Israel.[14] It was called the Ner Hama’aravi (Western lamp) because of the direction of its wick. This lamp was also referred to as the Ner Elohim (Lamp of El).
YAHUSHA THE ALEF TAF DAY 4 CALLED THE LIGHT OF ELOHIM BURNS CONTINUALLY!
Also mentioned in I Samuel 3:3. The miracle of the Ner Hama’aravi ended about 40 years before the destruction of the Temple (c. 30 CE) according to the Talmud (Tractate Yoma 39a), “Our Rabbis taught: During the last forty years before the destruction of the Temple (that is to say from around 30 CE the very year Yahusha died) the lot [‘For YHUH’] did not come up in the right hand; nor did the crimson-colored strap become white; nor did the westernmost light shine“.
BECAUSE THEY PUT THE LIGHT OUT, DAY 4, ALEF TAF, STOPPED STAYING ON 24/7….THIS PROVES BEYOND A SHADOW OF A DOUBT THAT AT THE TIME OF YAHUSHA, THEY KNEW THAT TIME AND THE TORAH WEEK CENTERED AROUND DAY 4-Modern Wednesday NOT DAY 1!!! SHEMA YISRAEL!!!!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menorah_(Temple)

4Q394 1-2 (Cave 4)-Note yet another SIGN– Where was the Torah Shabbat confirmed in the DSS? Cave 4 corresponding to day 4 of week 1. Another Yah-Incidence!

From Professor Rachel Elior a rabbinical Jew-“The present Jewish calendar is not matching the old Jewish priestly calendar. This ancient priestly calendar was replaced by the Greek lunar calendar, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanies by force” and later on by the sages, who chose the lunar calendar based on the people’s observation and not by pre-calculated calculations.”

Who are the Sons Of Darkness And who are the Sons Of Light?

” For they ought to reflect, that as a season has been fixed suitable for planting and sowing, so days have been appointed as appropriate for cohabitation, which are carefully to be observed. Accordingly someone well instructed in the doctrines taught by Moses, finding fault with the people for their sins, called them sons of the new moons (months) that are according to the moon.”
The Clementine of Homilies—19:22 P.S. This Pope Clement I (Latin: Clemens Romanus; Greek: Κλήμης Ῥώμης; died 99), also known as Saint Clement of Rome, is listed by Irenaeus and Tertullian as Bishop of Rome, holding office from 88 to his death in 99.[2] He is considered to be the first Apostolic Father of the Church.[3]
Eph 5:8  For you were once darkness,1 but now you are light in the Master. Walk as children of light – Footnote: 1See 2:2, 4:18, Col. 3:7.
 http://www.jpost.com/Magazine/Features/Article.aspx?id=141513
“From The Sun To The Moon”   posted @ 
09.28.2014 | 4 Tishri, 5775

From the sun to the moon

Prof. Rachel Elior explains how the sages invented Judaism as we know it. According to Prof. Rachel Elior of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Rabbis were involved in nothing less than “a reinvention of Judaism“…The short reason … she suggests, was “a dispute over the calendar… “scholars known as Pharisees who disputed the legitimacy of the Hasmonean priests and kings and who argued with the Zadokite priests about the solar calendar…”.

This battle between the “solar calendar and moon calendar” is also being referenced as the battle between “the sons of light and the sons of darkness”

Rev 1:12  And I turned to see the voice which spoke with me. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands,
Rev 1:13  and in the midst (The 4th stick ?) of the seven lampstands
One like the Son of Aam, dressed in a robe down to the feet and girded about the chest with a golden band.
He is the door that lead to our ABBA Father YaHuWaH: in the middle of the lampstand (the fourth lamppost represents the DOOR in Hebrew); the first day of the Aviv month is the fourth day of the week (the door), and the fourth day of the Aviv is the Shabbat (It is also reference as The DOOR: Our MessiYah Yahushua); Hallelujah, the first Sabbath of each new year is the 4thDay of Aviv which is the door to Shamayim. Ahmein

Attached are the Three Tests Given

By Sholiach Moshe Yoseph Koniuchowsky @3/10/18
BERESHEETH-GENESIS CH. 1 14-16 is our text. THE HEAVENLY WITNESSES OF YHWH’S TIME FOR DAYS, SEASONS, SHABBATS AND FEASTS! The Sun, Moon and stars are 3 witnesses to YHWH’s division of time! The moon when used properly can confirm the light source it represents. The stars are collectively the night light or the LESSER light. Let us quickly examine the 3 key factors to discern when the Year Turns & see how the so called Spring Equinox and Spring Equilux compare and which one meets the required criteria. -The Sun Test- The sun must rise and pass due east-west over the celestial equator, when the earth is at 0 degrees relative to the sun. Equinox passes the test. At Equilux the sun is still about 6 degrees south of the celestial equator and has not crossed it. The GREAT SIGN TEST is a cosmic sign & event and is failed by the so-called Equilux but passed by the Vernal Equinox. You will find the same results for the Fall Turn of The Year. Rest assured Enoch did not measure nano-seconds of refracted light in Jerusalem, a non-Israelite place during Enoch’s time. The heavens taught him astronomy. He read shadows 
  -The Stars Test- The sun rises and sets in the constellation of Pisces for about another 500 years, starting March 12th for about 38 days from March 12-April 18th. Both so-called Equilux and Equinox pass this test nicely! -The Moon Test- The moon lags behind the sun exactly as Enoch says, 10, days annually. The Zadokites used it to CONFIRM the 2 turns of the year and both solstices, as well as to confirm the 24 week order of the Millennial Temple priests, based on 1 Chronicles Ch.24. 
  This year, March 1st 2018 is 20 days before The Spring Equinox in the third year of a 3 year lunar cycle. On March 20th, In 2019, the first year of the new 3 year cycle, the full moon will appear exactly on the afternoon of the Spring Equinox, as well as exactly 30 days before and after it! The cycle repeats itself every 4th year so we can know which year it is! The phases of the full moon monthly confirm the days of the week, as they always fall on the same day in the modern week, as they did at the time of the Messiah. So for example in year one of a 3 year lunar cycle, the full moon of Aviv 1 is always Day 4 of week one and it always falls on our modern Wednesday every 3rd year. The second year for example has the full moon of Aviv fall on Day 2 of the 4th week of Aviv, and it always comes out on our Monday matching the ancient day 2! The full moon phase shows that the 7 day week has never changed! Meaning day 7 then is called Saturday today! SO there is a key purpose for the moon after all. These were done by calculations NOT OBSERVATIONS, THE SIN OF THE WATCHERS. If Equilux New Year is March 16th in Jerusalem as some allege, the full moon would have to occur only 16 days rather than the required 20 in 2018 [March 1st full moon-March 16th] before the supposed equal day and night, DIRECTLY CONTRADICTING the priestly records at Qumran. The miserably! YEAR #1 12/02 (30 days before Abib 1) 01/01 & 01/30 (30 days after Aviv 1) YEAR #2 12/22 (10 days before Abib 1) 01/20 (20 days after Aviv 1) YEAR #3 12/12 (20 days before Abib 1) 01/10 (10 days after Aviv 1) -Summary-The lie called The Equilux in Jerusalem on March 16th fails both the primary sun dial test, as well as the confirming moon phase test, as well as the subsequent priestly order test. The Vernal & Autumnal Turns of the Year pass all 3 Torah tests, with clarity and flying colors, pun intended! View all 3 signs for YOURSELF so you are no longer duped by data but enlightened with DAAT-The Knowledge from YHUH Almighty

EDITOR’S NOTE: Additional Picture Charts For Your Revision on this Subject:

 

   

Dead Sea Scroll Calendar 6 years Zadokites Priently Order PDF attached below:

Editor’s note:

2018 Dead Sea Scrolls Calendar Footnotes

DSS Calendar Year 1

DSS Calendar Year 2

DSS Calendar Year 3

DSS Calendar Year 4

DSS Calendar Year 5

DSS Calendar Year 6

dds YHWH Course of the Heavenly Liminaties

Editor’s note: 

No1 Enoch Calendar,

in case some of readers are not so familiar of the background of Zadokite Priestly Calendar .. 

Taken From  https://enochandhishistory33ad.wordpress.com/2016/12/05/27/

It is certain that, at the beginning of the first century, A.D., there existed two liturgical calendars other than Enoch‘s Creation Calendar.They were and still are the Roman Julian/Gregorian, and the Jewish lunar months calendar. Their feasts and appointed times were assigned by the lunar months and was the official calendar of the “Jewish” religion emerging out of the Maccabees rebellion which was refined after 70 AD due to the loss of the temple.Part of this “refining” after the loss of the temple was also the excising many of the collected books of law and history of the temple library.

The ignored calendar, except for the few who followed Enoch’s calendar was excised as well. Enoch was a stumbling block to the politically appointed Priests. It posted the appointed times and feasts on fixed days of a seven day week determined by the month and season of the year using the 364 day specific count for it’s days. Of note, is the Jewish weeks use and the Roman week day names for their 7 day week.

The character of the Enoch calendar has now been re-discovered in contemporary Jewish sources. It is witnessed not only in its Jubilees-Qumran type; but it also existed in Israel prior to the 70 year captivity of Judah in Babylon..With The Discovered Exiled Zadok,Enoch Revealed Calendar, the Formula For The Identification Of The Biblical Sabbath Day is again Revealed.The Book of Enoch was dropped from the Jewish scriptures, most likely because it referred to him as Messiah.

The book was quoted as scripture by the early congregations until the middle of the third century A.D. Enoch, was accepted as a divine work having been written by Enoch himself. It then fell into disrepute and was banned from the canon of scripture in the fourth century, partly because it didn’t agree with how “the way” came to be redefined after the death of the apostles. http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2001/enoch_cal.html#1 

The Enoch Calendar is detailed in the 1st Book Of Enoch. It is the original Priestly Calendar of the antediluvian patriarchs, up through Abraham, and Jacob until the captivity of Israel in Egypt.It was again taught to Moses as read in Exodus 12., and it continued in effect through the 2nd Temple period under Ezra and Nehemiah.It was the official Hebrew calendar until the 2nd Century BCE, when King Antiochus IV ended the use of the Enoch Calendar and forced the Hebrew people to observe the Lunar Babylonian Calendar.The New Moon Calendar was the calendar of the Greeks, derived from the Babylonians. When “Alexander the Great” conquered the middle east at the end of the 4th century BCE, the Lunar Calendar was introduced and was gradually accepted by most of the people, except for the Hebrews, Judah.By 167 BCE, King Antiochus IV gave orders to Jerusalem’s High Priest Menelaus to completely Hellenize the Jews and abandon the Enoch Calendar in favor of the New Moon Calendar.King Antiochus banned the Hebrew practices and prohibited all sacred practices and teachings. He sent a Senator from Athens to give the Hebrew people an ultimatum, to forsake the Laws of their Yahuah, and follow the Kings orders or to be put to death, and so it was, most of the Hebrew people followed the Kings orders to save their families, but yet many were put to death as they did refuse the king.King Antiochus forced the Hebrew people to celebrate the “Birthday of the Moon” every month, at the time of the visible crescent, and he ordered them to worship his god Zeus. When he dedicated the Temple in Jerusalem to Zeus, the Lord of Heaven (Baal Shamen), and began sacrificing swine and making abominable offerings on the temple altar, this was the impetus that began the Maccabees revolt (1 Maccabees 1:41-64 & 2 Maccabees 6:1-11).Hephaistio of Thebes was an astrologer in the 5th Century CE, who compiled the historical Hellenistic Astrology Records in his research work called “Apotelesmatics.” Hephaistio quotes King Antiochus, saying that the New Moon is the time when the “Moon is Born” and is the “Birthday of the Month.” But Antiochus of Athens says also that this method has a certain truth to it. “Observe, he says On a given day that the Moon is Born” and to this number add 180 and always deduct 29 from the Birthday of the Month.
(Apotelesmatics, Hephaistio of Thebes, Book I,Vol VI, Compendium, tr. Robert H.Schmidt & Robert Hand 1994 p.82 lines 21-24)

The Book of Jubilees was written during this difficult time period to preserve the “Creation” Enoch Calendar. It warned the Hellenistic “Jews”, Hebrews, to guard themselves against keeping the Athenian Calendar that began the year on the first New Moon after the Summer Solstice. The writers of the Book of Jubilees feared that if the Hebrew people observed King Antiochus’ monthly New Moon Festival Day, that begins the Greek Month, that they would forget the Enoch Calendar..The Translation Error of New Moon The term “New Moon” (yareach chadash) is Not Written anywhere in the Hebrew Scriptures. The Scriptures only use the word “month” (chodesh), which means either “month” or “new month” on the Solar Calendar. Some translators mixed up a few words, like CHODESH which means “Month” and its root word CHADASH which means “New.” They also confused the word YERACH which means “Month,” as in a “Complete Month,” with the word YAREACH which means “Moon,” and this is where the translation error of New Moon came into the various books and bibles, as it was commonly known that the Hebrew people observed the New Moon and kept a New Moon Festival every month.However, this is not commanded in the Torah, nor is the term “New Moon” ever mentioned in the whole Tanach when you look at the original Hebrew text.

No2.

The Disciples Kept the Sabbath 
85 Times in the book of Acts

Taken from  http://www.eliyah.com/85times.html
There are many scriptures that verify the Sabbath day being the 7th day of the week. All throughout the ‘New testament’, the first day of the week is called “The first day of the week” and the 7th day of the week is called “The Sabbath”. This fact alone should prove when the Sabbath truly is. 
However, let us examine the pattern of the disciples after Yahushua’s resurrection in the book of acts to determine what day that they attended Sabbath Services and what day they expected others to observe. We will keep a count of how many times the Sabbath is observed.
We see one example in Acts 17:1…

Acts 17:1 (NKJV) Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. Acts 17:2 Then Paul, as his custom was, went in to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures, Acts 17:3 explaining and demonstrating that the Messiah had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and [saying], “This Yahushua whom I preach to you is the Messiah.” Acts 17:4 And some of them were persuaded; and a great multitude of the devout Greeks, and not a few of the leading women, joined Paul and Silas.

Here we see that Paul went to a Sabbath service where there were both Jews and Greeks. The scripture also mentions that this was a regular custom of Paul. Was this also the custom of Yahushua the Messiah?

Luke 4:16 (NKJV) So He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up. And as His custom was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read.

So here we can see that 22 years after Yahushua’s death and resurrection the disciples were attending Sabbath services. In no place do we see Paul or any other disciple teaching them that they should come back the next day for a ‘first day of the week’ service. But they went to three Sabbath services where there were both Jews and Greeks present. So then the doctrine that says the Jews have their day (the 7th day) and the Gentiles have their day (the 1st day) is foreign to scripture. 
Some would argue that Paul was at the synagogue only because that is where he would find people to witness to…not to observe the Sabbath. But the scripture does not say that. This is an assumption that those who refuse the simplicity of the scriptures want to make, not one that the scriptures support. Again, the Seventh Day is called “The Sabbath day” in this passage.
So lets see where we are at now..

Seventh day – 3 First day – 0

Another example is found in Acts 13…

Acts 13:13 (NKJV) Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, departing from them, returned to Jerusalem. Acts 13:14 But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down. Acts 13:15 And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, “Men [and] brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on.”

So here is another example where Paul and the other disciples came to the Synagogue in Perga to attend the Sabbath Service.

Seventh day – 4 First day – 0

A little later in the chapter, after Paul shares Yahushua with them we see that the Gentiles were quite interested.

Acts 13:42 (NKJV) So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath.

Now here is a perfect situation for Paul to tell these Gentiles “Hey just come back tomorrow, we keep the Sabbath on the first day now!” But we don’t see this written anywhere in scripture.

Acts 13:43 Now when the congregation had broken up, many of the Jews and devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas, who, speaking to them, persuaded them to continue in the grace of Yahweh Acts 13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city came together to hear the word of Yahweh.

So here is the fifth time that the disciples attended a Sabbath service on the day that Yahweh sanctified at creation. Again, the seventh day is called “the Sabbath” in this passage.

Seventh day – 5 First day – 0

Here is another example in Acts 16…

Acts 16:11 (NKJV) Therefore, sailing from Troas, we ran a straight course to Samothrace, and the next [day] came to Neapolis, Acts 16:12 and from there to Philippi, which is the foremost city of that part of Macedonia, a colony. And we were staying in that city for some days. Acts 16:13 And on the Sabbath day we went out of the city to the riverside, where prayer was customarily made; and we sat down and spoke to the women who met [there].

It was the custom of the Jews of that day for the rabbi to shut down the synagogue if there were not at least 10 men that would show up for the Sabbath meeting. This could very well be why there were women meeting by the riverside for prayer. Nevertheless, we see that the disciples sought a place to meet for the Sabbath and they did. Again, the seventh day is called “the Sabbath Day” in this passage.

Seventh day – 6 First day – 0

Acts 18:1 (NKJV) After these things Paul departed from Athens and went to Corinth. Acts 18:2 And he found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla (because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome); and he came to them. Acts 18:3 So, because he was of the same trade, he stayed with them and worked; for by occupation they were tentmakers. Acts 18:4 And he reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath, and persuaded both Jews and Greeks.

So we see that he worked on the other days as a tentmaker…but on the Sabbath He was not. And here again we see that both Jews and Greeks are in the synagogue and on the Sabbath. Paul also is among them attending the Sabbath services. The interesting thing about this verse is that instead of the scripture saying that they attended only one or three sabbath services, it says that he was there every Sabbath persuading both Jews and Greeks. Again, the seventh day is called “the Sabbath” in this passage so we know that we can at least count one. Let’s do that..

Seventh day – 7 First day – 0

Now if Paul was in Corinth and was reasoning in the synagogue every Sabbath, if we could find out how long he stayed in Corinth then we would know how many Sabbaths he actually attended. Let’s look furthur..

Acts 18:5 (NKJV) When Silas and Timothy had come from Macedonia, Paul was compelled by the Spirit, and testified to the Jews [that] Yahushua [is] the Messiah. 6 But when they opposed him and blasphemed, he shook [his] garments and said to them, “Your blood [be] upon your [own] heads; I [am] clean. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” 7 And he departed from there and entered the house of a certain [man] named Justus, [one] who worshiped God, whose house was next door to the synagogue. 8 Then Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Master with all his household. And many of the Corinthians, hearing, believed and were baptized. 9 Now the Master spoke to Paul in the night by a vision, “Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not keep silent; 10 “for I am with you, and no one will attack you to hurt you; for I have many people in this city.” 11 And he continued [there] a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.

A year and six months! Finally the ruler of the synagogue was converted to Yahushua and Paul was there a year and six months! So the scripture says that Paul was there every Sabbath and that he was there for a year and six months. If we counted this by our present calendar that would give us 52 Sabbaths in a year plus 26 Sabbaths in the following six months which gives us a total of 78 Sabbaths! Now lets add this to our present total:

Seventh Day – 85 First day – 0

So we can see that the disciples observed the Sabbath and attended a Sabbath service 85 times in the book of acts alone! Again, the seventh day is called “the Sabbath” in this passage.
Now how many times do we see them meeting together on the first day? Some would cite one example in Acts 20. Let’s examine the text…

Acts 20:6 (NKJV) But we sailed away from Philippi after the Days of Unleavened Bread, and in five days joined them at Troas, where we stayed seven days. Acts 20:7 Now on the first [day] of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul, ready to depart the next day, spoke to them and continued his message until midnight.

Here we see an example of the disciples gathering together on the first day of the week. There is no mention of a Sabbath being observed in this verse. Nowhere is this day called “The Sabbath”. In fact, we know that Paul was ready to depart the next day. According to verse 7, Paul spoke to them a message because for this very reason.
Now some would say that coming together to ‘break bread’ constitutes a meeting that includes the observance of partaking in Yahushua’s body. But this is not true…consider this verse:

Acts 2:44 (NKJV) Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common, 45 and sold their possessions and goods, and divided them among all, as anyone had need. 46 So continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart, 47 praising Yahweh and having favor with all the people. And Yahweh added to the assembly daily those who were being saved.

According to this scripture, breaking bread was not an uncommon thing to do on a daily basis. It was one of the customs in those days to eat their ‘daily bread’. Even in Yahushua’s prayer He said “Give us this day our daily bread”.
So we cannot confirm that this scripture in Acts 20 is a Sabbath day observance. In fact, nowhere does it say that the first day of the week is the Sabbath. But the 7th day of the week is always called “the Sabbath” in the ‘new testament.’ Unless you don’t believe in the New Testament, you would have to conclude that this was not a Sabbath meeting. So what was it really? Many may not realize that in scripture, a new day begins at sundown. This would mean that at sundown on ‘Saturday’, the first day of the week begins. This was most probably an ‘after Sabbath’ fellowship meal where Paul continued to speak until midnight because he wanted to get as much teaching in as possible before he departed the next day.  
Nevertheless some will hang onto this one verse so that they don’t have to forsake tradition and keep the true Sabbath. But you can search the scriptures from Genesis to Revelations and you will not find a single verse that says His Sabbath was changed to a different day. There is not a single verse that tells us that the Ten Commandments are not to be kept. And there is not a single verse that prophesied either of these two events occurring! In fact, the scriptures declare the seventh day to be the Sabbath in the Law, in the words of the prophets, in the writings about Yahushua and in the acts of the apostles as well as in the scriptures that speak of Yahweh’s kingdom. Therefore that final tally will remain at:

Seventh Day – 85 First day – 0

There is also evidence that the early disciples kept the Sabbath on the true day:

“The primitive Christians did keep the Sabbath of the Jews;.therefore the Christians for a long time together, did keep their conventions on the Sabbath, in which some portion of the Law were read: and this continued till the time of the Laodicean council.” The Whole Works of Jeremey Taylor, Vol. IX, p416 (R. Heber’s Edition, Vol.XII, p.416)

“The ancient Christians were very careful in the observation of Saturday, or the seventh day..It is plain that all the Oriental churches, and the greatest part of the world, observed the Sabbath as a festival…Athanasius likewise tells us that they held religious assemblies on the Sabbath, not because they were infected with Judaism, but to worship [Yahushua], the [Master] of the Sabbath, Epiphanius says the same.” Antiquities of the Christian Church, Vol. II, Book XX, chap. 3, Sec. 1, 66.1137, 1138

“Ambrose, the celebrated bishop of Milan, said that when he was in Milan he observed Saturday, but when in Rome observed Sunday. This gave rise to the proverb ‘When you are in Rome, do as Rome does,’ ” Heylyn, The History of the Sabbath, 1613

Constantine later enforced keeping a Sabbath on the first day of the week, which he calls “the venerable day of the sun.” Venerable means ‘commanding respect’.
The text of Constantine’s Sunday Law of 321 A.D. is:

“One the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for gain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost.”

This doesn’t even really sound like Yahweh’s Sabbath which forbids any kind of work at all on His day!
Later, those who observed the Sabbath were persecuted and killed by the Catholic church. When the Jesuit St. Francis Xavier arrived in India he immediately requested to the pope to set up the Inquisition there.

“The Jewish wickedness” of which Xavier complained was evidently the Sabbath-keeping among those native Christians as we shall see in our next quotation. When one of these Sabbath-keeping Christians was taken by the Inquisition he was accused of having *Judaized*; which means having conformed to the ceremonies of the Mosaic Law; such as not eating pork, hare, fish without scales, of having attended the solemnization of the Sabbath.” Account of the Inquisition at Goa, Dellon, p.56. London, 1815

“Of an hundred persons condemned to be burnt as Jews, there are scarcely four who profess that faith at their death; the rest exclaiming and protesting to their last gasp that they are Christians, and have been so during their whole lives.” Ibid p.64

Today, some of the leading Baptists even have admitted that the Sunday Sabbath isn’t in the scriptures:

“There was and is a commandment to keep holy the Sabbath day, but that Sabbath day was not on Sunday…It will be said, however, and with some show of triumph, that the Sabbath was transferred from the seventh to the first day of the week….where can the record of such a transaction be found? Not in the New Testament. Of course, I quite well know that Sunday did come into use in early Christian history as a religious day, as we learn from the Christian Fathers and other sources. But what a pity that it comes branded with the mark of paganism, and christened with the name of a sun god, when adopted and sanctioned by the papal apostasy, and bequeathed as a sacred legacy to Protestantism!” Dr. Edward Hiscox, author of The Baptist Manual

Amazing….

I-Will-Rise

The Eternal Message of Yahuwah That Mikvah/Baptism Gives to the Nephilim Offspring of the Watcher Fallen Angels 

“I WILL RISE” written and sung by Chris Tomlin
There’s a peace/Shalom I’ve come to know
Though my heart and flesh may fail
There’s an anchor for my soul
I can say “It is well”
Yahushua has overcome
And the grave is overwhelmed
The victory is won
He is risen from the dead
And I will rise when He calls my name
No more sorrow, no more pain
I will rise on eagles’ wings
Before my God/YAH fall on my knees
And rise
I will rise
There’s a day that’s drawing near
When this darkness breaks to light
And the shadows disappear
And my faith/Belief shall be my eyes
Yahushua has overcome
And the grave is overwhelmed
The victory is won
He is risen from the dead
And I will rise when He calls my name
No more sorrow, no more pain
I will rise on eagles’ wings
Before my God/YAH fall on my knees
And rise
I will rise
And I hear the voice of many angels sing,
“Worthy…
And I hear the voice of many angels sing,
“Worthy is the Lamb”
And I hear the cry of every longing heart,
“Worthy is the Lamb”
And I hear the voice of many angels sing,
“Worthy is the Lamb”
And I hear the cry of every longing heart,
“Worthy is the Lamb”
And I will rise when He calls my name
No more sorrow, no more pain
I will rise on eagles’ wings
Before my God fall on my knees
And rise
I will rise
Songwriters: Chris Tomlin / Jesse Reeves / Louie Giglio / Matt Maher
I Will Rise lyrics © EMI Music Publishing – Hello Love album 2008
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WlHUKY3jBv0
[Note: I, Yedidah, substituted the Hebrew Name above all Names, Yahushua, in place of Iesous/Jesus]   This is a beautiful and powerful song!  Every time I hear it, my spirit vibrates with praise and my eyes fill with tears.
————–
     Romans 8:11: “And if the Spirit of Him who raised Yahushua from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Messiah from the dead shall also give life to your mortal bodies through His RUACH/Spirit dwelling in you.”
John 11:23-27: “Yahushua said to her (Martha), `I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he were dead, yet shall he live. And everyone who is living and believing in me shall never die.”
     From Matthew 28:1-7: “…He is not here, for He has risen as He said. Come see the place where the Master laid. Go quickly! Say to His disciples that He was raised from the dead…” Luke 24:4-7: “…two men stood by them in glittering garments …these said to them `Why seek you the living among the dead? He is not here, He has risen…’”

     Because He has risen, we, too, can rise in the resurrection of the righteous!

     To obtain a foundation for the amazing revelations I share with you here, I refer you to go my website, comeenterthemikvah.com. Click on “Foundational Articles” on my main page and learn what the mikvah really is. Also, for foundational understanding on water baptism, I refer you to the article on water baptism under Mikvah #2 “Immerse into the Waters of Baptism,” entitled “Baptism: The Beginning Mikvah for Separation — Dying to the old life, rising to the new (December 2011)
     So many time we can know something intellectually, and though it is pleasant to our mind, it doesn’t have much life-changing depth until Abba impacts our spirit with His Spirit, and then it becomes revelation knowledge that bypasses the carnal mind and lodges deep in the eternal spirit. The knowledge then becomes life-changing. It becomes real. It becomes something that you want to seek with all your heart.
     I first heard this amazing insight in a recent interview on Skywatch with Dr. Michael Heiser, reviewing his new book Reversing Hermon – The Sin of the Watchers. His words leapt into my spirit, while the anointing of Abba’s Spirit confirmed it.
     In my extensive researching for a great part of 54 years, comparing the prophecies throughout the Word with current events, then relating them as Yahuwah teaches me, I have done research in the book of Enoch I.  I also have gone up onto a peak of the Mount Hermon ridge many times from inside Israel. I’ve seen some of the ruins where worship of pagan gods went on within the tribe of Dan, and where Nephilim hybrids inhabited Bashan (today’s Golan Heights) before the Flood. (Genesis 6)
     Talk about a mighty portal for demonic entrance! [Refer to my study: “Mount Hermon and Mount Tabor”] According to the book of Enoch I, in the days of Jared, 200 Watcher’s, fallen angels, came down on Mount Hermon to mate with human women and produce what the Word calls Nephilim – giants, hybrid beings of incredible size and strength. It was because the children of these Watchers took over earth, leaving only Noah and his family with pure human blood, that Yahuwah had to send the Flood.
     When Dr. Heiser began talking about baptism and Enoch’s message from Yahuwah to the Watchers, Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation began going off in my mind like an explosion of interconnecting Truth. Then on the morning of December 14th, upon awakening, Abba began downloading into me the outline for this article.
     Dr. Heiser chuckled regarding I Peter 3:18-22, noting how Kepha/Peter loaded so much into this passage that each sentence seems to be talking about a different subject. Kepha compares baptism to Noah and the Flood. However, as Heiser noted, the passage is carefully connected. This former fisherman was a very intelligent man! He had been up on Mount Hermon with Ya’cob/James, Yochanan/John, and Messiah Yahushua, when Messiah began to glow and Eliyahu/Elijah and Moshe/Moses appeared on either side of Him. (Matthew 17:1-7) Kepha wanted to build booths because he knew that Eliyahu was the Groom’s attendant and Moshe was the Bride Attendant. And, Sukkot/Feast of Tabernacles/Booths was near–the time for the eternal wedding. Yochanan the baptizer had even referred to himself as an attendant to the Groom/Messiah, John 3:29, and Yahushua had referred to His little band of disciples as attendants, Mark 2:18-20.
     In II Peter 2:1-9, Kepha also discusses the Watchers–the fallen angels who had descended onto Mount Hermon in the days of Jarad and brought great technology and advanced knowledge of all types to mankind. Kepha wrote about the time of their return, and of their final judgment. Because of the sin of the fallen angels, those who rebelled with Lucifer in heaven, Yahuwah sentenced them to Tartaros upon their death–the lowest hell. After 70 generations they would be allowed to return to again bring the forbidden knowledge and technology to mankind that would bring mankind and all creation into utter destruction on the Day of Yahuwah, the Day of Judgment, when Messiah Yahushua comes with the wrath of His Father. Their time allotted was 120 years. Indeed, we have seen the result of their return, from around 1896 to 2016.
     The original fallen angels who “left their first estate” (Jude 1:6), their original dwelling, to extend themselves into the earth by mating with human women, knew they had sinned a great sin against Yahuwah. They pleaded with Enoch to go to Yahuwah to beg Him to forgive them so that they might return to their former dwelling with Him. But, his answer horrified them.
     Refer to Enoch I 11:11-16 for the 70 generation prophecy–the 4,900 years of the incarceration of the original fallen angels in Tartaros, culminating in 1896 CE when they’d rise for 120 years to finish their course before their eternal judgment. Also refer to Enoch I 12:3-14:7 about the fallen ones sending Enoch to Yahuwah to ask Him to forgive them of their sins with human women and not send them to Tartaros.
     Enoch went to Yahuwah with their petition. Yahuwah rejected it! His message to them: They will have no forgiveness forever. They will have no peace forever. Their children will be slaughtered and lie upon the ground like dung. They and their children will never rise to life but remain imprisoned forever. Of course, the fallen ones were horrified. After the Flood, they were bound and sent to Tartaros (II Kepha/Peter 2:4).
     After their final judgment by Yahuwah (Revelation 20), they and their children will never rise again – but remain in the eternal prison of darkness and fire. But, then, so will all people who have rejected Yahuwah and Yahushua’s right to rule. The fallen ones were horrified at Yahuwah’s pronouncement of their future. The 120 years (Genesis 6:2-4) ended with 2016. Soon their leader, Lucifer, is coming for his short time to take vengeance on Yahuwah’s creation. (Revelation 12:7-12) The hybrid creation and offspring of the Nephilim will also rise for the short time of the rule of their king Abaddon/Apollyon (Revelation 9), but afterwards they would be incarcerated in Hades, Hell, Gehenna, forever–they would never rise.
      The disembodied spirits of Nephilim are “demons.” They seek a body. Evil humans are cloning bodies for them, yet billions of humans invite them into their body, mind, emotions, houses, offices, etc., by willful sin and by simply not guarding their mind. Also, evil humans and hybrid entities are delving into the ancient sorcery of Ezekiel 13:18-20 to capture the souls and spirits of human being to make them “fly” in order for their bodies to be inhabited by the returning Nephilim. [Refer to: “The Eruption of Hidden Evil Rising Up Into the Light – Ezekiel 13:18-20/Dec. 9, 2016]
     The month of December is the main month out of the year for the portals to open from the kingdom of darkness for the entrance of all types of fallen angels, Nephilim, Rephaim, hybrid creatures of all types, into the earth. It is the month when the portals are opened in billions of homes, minds and bodies, around the world for their entrance by people celebrating Christmas, not knowing they are engaged in occult worship.
     In December there is more depression, more deaths, more suicides, more divorces, more theft, more murder, more drunkenness, more tragedy, filth, and debauchery, than in any other month. In December, there is also more satanic animal and human sacrifice than in any other month. The sun gods were all born on December 25th, but also they began dying on December 21st at the winter solstice, only to rise to new life at the time of the spring equinox–at Easter/Ishtar. Also, there is a clue in Haggai which alerts us to the possibility that Messiah was conceived on the 24th day of Kislev. (See FootNote below)
     After the Flood the ancient knowledge of DNA manipulation to create Nephilim hybrids was used – first, it appears, by Canaan, then by Nimrod, and others, to create new hybrid races. We know from passages Deuteronomy 2-3 that Moses and Joshua fought against giants. We know from Numbers 13:30-32 that they fought against Nephilim of the tribe of the Anakim. In I Samuel 17 and I Chronicles 11 we read that as a boy and as King, David, and his “mighty men,” fought with the giant Philistines and the sons of Moab.
     The Anakim and Amorites fled West across Europe, even across North America, Mexico, Central and South America, leaving traces of their presence in many ways – especially their bones and artifacts in their mounds, pyramids, and other gravesites.
     Since they’ve been here 120 years, what we’re seeing is the takeover of mankind by supernatural beings/entities and hybrids posing as human beings in high places in government, economics, military, and religion.  [For more understanding, listen to the three “Audio Messages” on my website from meetings in Canada November 6-8, 2015 about the days of Noah and the last 120 years]
     Isaiah 26:14: “The dead do not live. The departed spirits do not rise.  Therefore, you have visited and destroyed them and made all their remembrance to perish.”
The word “spirits” is “rapha,” #7496 Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary. Meaning of “rapha”: spirits, shades, or ghosts.
     In contrast to Isaiah 26:14 is Isaiah 26:19-21: “the earth will cast out the dead” KJV
“Will give birth to the departed spirits…” NAS
     I Corinthians 15:51-58: “Behold, I tell you a mystery – we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet shall sound and the dead in Messiah shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.”
    Romans 6:2b-4, 8: “…How shall we who have died to sin still live in it? Or do you not know that as many of us who were immersed (baptized) into Yahushua Messiah were immersed into His death?  We were therefore buried with Him in immersion into death that as Messiah was raised from the dead by the esteem of the Father, so shall we walk in newness of life…If we died with Him, we believe that we shall also live with Him.”

     The word “ Mikvah/baptism” means to be immersed totally under the water, symbolizing our death to sin. As we come up out of the water, we rise to new life – symbolizing our resurrection.  

 
If we are truly born again and filled with the Spirit of Yahuwah, our Mikvah/baptism/immersion into water is a witness to everyone that we have left the kingdom of darkness and our old life. As we come up out of the water we witness to everyone that we have taken on His life, for we have died to all self-will.  (Luke 14:25-33; Matthew 10:34-39; Mark 8:34-38)
 
      Sha’ul wrote: I am nailed to the stake of Messiah, nevertheless I live, yet not I but Messiah lives in me, and the life that I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of Yahuwah who loved me and gave Himself for me.” (Galatians 2:20)
 

     But, as Michael Heiser brought out, our initial baptism/immersion into water, and subsequent mikvahs, witness to the Nephilim who now walk this earth, to fallen angels, and to Lucifer himself, that we will rise, but they won’t. Beginning with our initial baptism after salvation and continuing throughout our life with mikvahs as we can do them (immersions in running water), we send a message to the fallen ones: We are free! We will never be imprisoned in Hades. The “gates of Hades” will never prevail against us – we will rise! (Matthew 16:13-19).

     The place where Yahushua was with His disciples when He delivered his famous statement about the gates of Hade was at the base of Mount Hermon. Today it is known as “Banias.” It is an Arab word–there is no “P” sound in Arabic. It was originally “Panias,” where stood the temple of Pan, and the temple of Zeus, and the temple of Caesar Philip, or Caesarea Philippi. Today there are only ruins there. I’ve been there many times. From there to the top of Mount Hermon that borders Syria is only about a 20minutes drive. There is a “bump,” or “hump,” on a peak of the Hermon range near Banias. The account in Matthew 17:1-9 speaks of Messiah leaving Panias/Banias with His disciples after six days. They walk to the base of a Hermon peak. Messiah takes Kepha, Yochanan, and Ya’cob, with Him up onto this “bump-hump.” There Messiah is transfigured. He was transfigured on the 7th day–the day of the future wedding, the day prefiguring Sukkot and the Kingdom in the 7th millennium. It was at Banias that Shimon Kepha/Peter made his famous declaration of Emunah/faith: “You are the Messiah, the Son of the Living Elohim.” Upon his statement Messiah has gathered His assembly, and the gates of Hades will not prevail. His people will rise. The Nephilim, the gods of old, and their hybrid-children, will never rise. They will be tormented forever.
     It is proclaimed by Orthodox Jews that this “hump-bump” on Mount Hermon is where Elohim cut the covenant with Abraham. Thus it is dubbed “Har Brit.”
     There is an unusual statement made in Psalm 133:3: “As the dew of Hermon that comes down on the mountain of Zion, for there Yahuwah commanded the Barakah/blessing–life forever!” What “dew?” — The Covenant Barakah/blessing that began on Hermon with Abraham (Genesis 15), was carried all the way south to Mount Zion in East Jerusalem, where Yahuwah and Yahushua, the two in the Genesis 15 Covenant-walk while Abraham slept, will dwell with us forever-Psalm 132:13-14. What began on Hermon for evil, Abba will turn it to eternal good on Zion!
     Psalm 68:15-16: “A mountain of Elohim is a mountain of Bashan; a mountain of peaks is the mountain of Bashan. Oh mountain of peaks, why do you gaze in envy at the mountain Elohim desires to dwell in; Elohim even dwells there forever.”
     The mountain of peaks in Bashan (Golan Heights) is Mount Hermon. The mountain Elohim desires to dwell in is Mount Zion in East Jerusalem. (Psalm 132:13-14) Why would Bashan be jealous of Zion? — It is because Hermon is where the Bride of Messiah originally began her wedding march to her wedding on Zion when her Beloved One, Messiah, arrives on earth. Zion is her home forever with her Bridegroom! It was on the slopes of Hermon, see picture below, that the covenant was cut between Yahuwah and Yahushua with Abraham (Genesis 15). From Hermon the Bride has made a long procession–through Egypt and Sinai, where the engagement covenant was cut, then into the Promised Land, and now on to Zion. Very beautiful, very poetic, don’t you think?
     For a great video on site on Mount Hermon, I refer you to the video made by Derek and Rivkah on the top of the Hermon Ridge inside Israel–under “Videos” on their website: thewelltroddenroad.org. I was up there with them taking my own pictures. This video is one of my very favorites, along with the video Derek made in August at Ein Herod, where Yahuwah chose Gideon’s 300 for him. I was there too (smile).
     Around 2009, I took a bus to Manara Cliff near Kefar Shmona, in north Israel. There I rode in a cable car to the top of the cliff. After walking around for a while, I saw where I could take a tractor-train trip along the Lebanon border. I was told the trip was all in Hebrew, but if the next Jewish group let me go, I could go with them. I said I just wanted to go. And, I went. A young man drove a tractor pulling open train-like cars with seats. The tour went right along the Lebanon border fence. The young man driving the tractor stopped at the top of a hill, and after giving the Hebrew explanation, he came back to me and spoke to me in English. He then pointed way off in the distance to the Hermon “hump-bump” and said: “That is where YAHUWAH  cut the covenant with Abraham.” Out of my mouth, with excitement, came “It’s Har Brit!” He was shocked. The Spirit of Yahuwah jumped between his spirit and mine. I’ve had that happen with believers in Messiah in Africa, but never with an Orthodox Jew. It was priceless!
Left picture below: The Har Brit “hump,” heading East towards Syria across the Golan’s north border.
Right picture of the tractor “train” that took us along the Lebanon Border fence
    
     Iyob/Job 26:5: “…the departed spirits tremble” NAS.  “…dead things are formed” KJV.  Job 26:5-6 KJV: “Dead things are formed from under the waters and the inhabitants thereof. Hell is naked before Him and destruction has no covering.”
     Isaiah 14:9: “…it stirs up the dead for you, even all the chief ones…” KJV
     Ephesians 1:15-21; 4:8-10: Messiah descended into the earth. He preached to those in prison. He preached to those in Hades and in Paradise. When He ascended in Acts 1, he took with Him all those who had been in Paradise.
     Psalm 24 speaks of the opening of the gates of Shamayim/Heaven so that Messiah could enter with the first residents of Shamayim/heaven. Paradise is now a suburb of the heavenly Jerusalem on High. When Messiah returns, He returns with all of His set-apart ones who have died in Emunah/faith (Zechariah 14:1-5; Jude 1:14-15 (quoting Enoch I), I Thessalonians 3:13)
     Revelation 1:17-18, Messiah speaking: “Do not be afraid; I am the AlephTau -First and the Last, and the Living One. And I became dead, and see I am alive for evermore. Amein. And I have the keys of hell and death.”

     Jonah is a sign of Messiah’s descent and rising. In Jonah chapter 2, we read that he went down into the earth beyond the gates of Hades. He was there for 72 hours. Upon repentance, he rose up to new life.  

 

     Matthew 12:40-41: Messiah descended into the pit, Hades, for 72 hours, at the end of it He arose. The most often repeated prophecy by Messiah is the sign of the prophet Jonah. “As Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so shall the Son of Adam be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” Messiah died on Wednesday (the 4th day) and was placed into the tomb before sunset, which began the Jewish Passover. 72 hours later, still on the Shabbat day,  “early on the first day of the week, He already arose – in other words He arose on the Shabbat day.
     As Dr. Heiser noted, Mikvah/baptism is a pledge of loyalty to Yahushua. It makes a statement to all who witness the initial baptism, and it makes a statement to the condemned fallen angels, and to Lucifer/Satan himself. (Isaiah 14; Revelation 20)
     Dr. Heiser then brings up Galatians 3:19, where Sha’ul asks: “Why, then, the Torah? It was added because of transgression until the Seed should come to whom the promise was made.”
     The Torah (instructions/teachings) of animal sacrifice, the work of Levites as priests, was added after the golden calf rebellion in order to put boundaries on rebellion and idolatry. We know that. But, Dr. Heiser brings up something we must consider, that the Torah itself was particularly given on Sinai to put boundaries around the sins of the Watchers, that their sin not defile His family anymore. This is why Yahuwah told Joshua to kill men, women, children, and animals upon entering the Land. They were not human, even the animals were hybrids. They were Nephilim! If His people had mated with them, the gene pool of the tribes of Ya’cob would have been polluted forever. I believe this is the reason why Yahuwah had to scatter the ten northern tribes out of what is now north Israel into all nations AMONG the gentiles– to save the gene pool of the ten tribes. I believe they were doing DNA-mixing and engaged in portal opening for the Nephilim to return. King Jeroboam put up an altar and a golden calf in “Dan” – what is now Tel Dan, close to Banias, at the base of Mount Hermon. I’ve seen the ruins of it.
     Heiser says there are Jewish leaders who believe the Torah was given as a result of the Watcher’s sin – to keep it from spreading to Abba’s people. We learn what sin is by the boundaries of the Torah. I John 3:4: “…sin is the transgression of the Torah.” “Transgression” means “rebellion, and apostasy.”
     If the Torah was given to put boundaries to keep the sins of the Watchers from returning, as well as to point out our sin, then the Torah is even more important now, or as important, than it was back then when Joshua led them into the Land, for the guarding of the Torah will protect us now from the returning Nephilim.
     In other words, the Torah is our protection against the infiltration of the powers of the fallen angels and their Nephilim who want to take from us our soul and spirit, as in Ezekiel 13:18-20-making us non-human.
     The guarding of the Torah puts around us a barrier between them and us, so that as born-again, Spirit-filled, obedient servants of the Master, living in Covenant relationship with Yahuwah through faith in Yahushua Messiah, we are guarded against the ability of the returned Watchers to take from us our eternal life and our mind.
     The born-again cannot be taken up into a space ship and have their reproductive organs vandalized, like so many that have been abducted by “aliens.” We cannot be victims of Nephilim who want to come and “eat up our flesh.” (Psalm 27:1-3) There is a wall of protection put around us for our obedience. The Torah was given to us to hide inside, so that we would have power over all the abilities of the enemy (Luke 10:19) and the Word would make us wise as to how to use our power. These are things Dr. Heiser did not address. Abba opened them up to me.
     Because Yahushua descended and conquered, then ascended, we who allow the Spirit of Yahuwah to rule us, will also rise. My testimony is Psalm 40:2-4. I descended into the pit of sin and death, but He did not let me die. He brought me out, set my feet on a rock, and established my going into a righteous path to eternal life.
    If we do not descend from pride to humility, we cannot be lifted up. I Peter 5:5-10 “Humble yourself under the mighty hand of Elohim, so that He exalts you in due time.”
Ya’cob 4:6, 10: “Elohim resists the proud but gives favor to the humble…Humble yourselves in the sight of the Master and He will lift you up.”
     Death is separation. At the death of the body, the spirit-man separates and rises out of the body, but if it is born again, it never separates from the Presence of Elohim!
Revelation 20:6: “Baruch and set-apart is the one having part in the first resurrection. The second death possesses no authority over them…”
     If we are born from above, we die once. If a person is not born from above, they die twice. (Revelation 20:6) They do not rise in the resurrection of the righteous. But, the Nephilim will be cast into the pit forever; they cannot rise, neither can those who die without Yahushua.
     Philippians 3:10-14: “…that I might know Him, and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings that I might be conformed to His death, if somehow I might attain to the resurrection of the dead. Not that I have already received or been perfected, but I press on to lay hold of that for which Messiah Yahushua has also laid hold of me. Brothers, I do not count myself to have laid hold of it yet, but only this: forgetting those things which are behind and reaching out for what lies ahead, I press on towards the goal for the prize of the high calling of Elohim in Messiah Yahushua.”
This great soldier of the Master pressed on. Here he is ready to receive his prize:
II Timothy 4:6-8: “For I am already being poured out, and the time of my departure has arrived.  I have fought the good fight; I have finished the race; I have guarded the faith. For the rest, there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Master, the Righteous Judge, shall give to me on that Day, and not to me only but to all those loving His appearing.”
I Peter 1:8-9: “…whom having not seen you love; in whom you exalt with unspeakable and esteemed joy, yet not seeing but believing, obtaining the goal of your faith, the salvation of our life.”
     We have a beginning in the true new birth. We have a time of laying down our life, suffering for His sake, obeying, denying self-will to take up His. Then we receive the reward of our investment of our lives for Him as we pass into His Kingdom/the reign of Yahuwah/Yahushua.

     We must descend first in order to ascend. We must lay down our old life to pick up His new life. As we walk, filled with the Spirit, in newness of life, we walk the narrow hard-pressed path that leads to the narrow gate that leads to life eternal. (Matthew 7:13-14)

     Your initial Mikvah/baptism after your new birth and your mikvahs all during your walk with Him are a continual message to the fallen ones that you as a frail human will do what they will never do – rise to life forever with Yahuwah and Yahushua.

I have never seen a painting or picture of any type that comes anywhere close to what I saw in a vision of the return of Messiah.
Put a few Scriptures together, like Isaiah 34, and 63:1-6, Zechariah 14:1-5; I Corinthians 15:51-58; I Thessalonians 4:13-18; Jude 1:14-15; Revelation 11:15-18; Revelation 19… He comes on the Day of Yahuwah, with the wrath of Yahuwah.
     His return path is noted in Deuteronomy 33:2-3; Isaiah 34 and 63:1-6; Habakkuk chapter 3, and Zechariah 14:1-5, Matthew 24:29-31. As He rises up over Sela/Petra/Mt. Seir, the resurrection of the righteous takes place.
     I wish I could get a drawing done of my vision. Messiah leading all the set apart ones in order of their rank with Him, fanning out behind him like a flowing cape. He rides a white horse. (Revelation 19:11-16) He is dressed in the garments of the High Priest. He is dressed in the “garments of vengeance.” (Isaiah 59:14-18)
     In my vision, all of His set-apart ones ride white horses. As He descends one row after another of set-apart ones has a front row seat for an instant before descending towards Jerusalem. The cape fans out far and wide for many miles, with millions of people. Directly behind Him rode Abraham, Yitzak, and Ya’cob. Just behind them, as when Ya’cob faced Esau, sat His Bride, the “bridal remnant.” To the left, sat His attendants–the Prophets and Apostles–and to the right sat the righteous Kings, King David in the lead, and warriors like Joshua and Caleb.
     Before Him the earth will shake nearly out of its orbit. The Word will go forth like a sword out of His mouth. The fire of the wrath of His Father went before Him and all the wicked of earth were destroyed, leaving the planet empty except for such a few that a child could count them. We read about those running out from the tunnels under Jerusalem to meet Him in Zechariah 14:1-5. He comes with all of His set-apart ones.
Read Isaiah 10 and 24; Proverbs 2:21-22
    Oh what we have to look forward to if we guard our salvation and obey His commands to be one of His. (I Corinthians 2:9 with Isaiah 64:4)
 

     Your act of mikvah/baptism/immersion terrifies the fallen ones of Hell because it reminds them of their hopelessness.    

     Remember your life speaks loudly – to the fallen angels, the Nephilim, and to Lucifer himself, and to all those humans who observe your nature. If you are blameless before Yahuwah, you are a constant reminder of their judgment for rebelling against Yahuwah. If you are a religious game-player, they know you belong to them.

     Those in the pit do not rise. The final judgment is written in Revelation 20:11-15. Make sure your life witnesses to His resurrection power and your voice witnesses to it also. Billions will soon die. We are ambassadors of the Kingdom/the reign of Yahuwah.
Shalom in His love and joy,
Yedidah
December 22, 2016
***Dedicated to my son and ministry partner Derek Townsend, who turned 46 on December 21st … oh to be so young!

Foot Note by the Editor of http://www.Man-Child.com

(Taken from https://jamestabor.com/hanukkah-christmas-but-what-about-kislev-24/ )

Haggai comes to us from the 2nd year of the Persian King Darius, late summer, August, 520 BCE. It is one of the most precisely dated books in the Hebrew Bible, much like its sister Zechariah, and its twin Malachi. The three go together, like peas in the pod, both coming from that crucial time of the “restoration” of Judah to the Land following the Babylonian captivity. Collectively they are our last words of the Prophets in the Hebrew Bible–and thus for Jews and others who consider the Tanakh Scripture–the last inspired words of Yehovah. Indeed, it is possible that Haggai is the unnamed author of the book called Malachi, which means in Hebrew “My Messenger,” since in Haggai 1:12, the Prophet is identified as the “messenger of Yehovah.”
Both Haggai and Zechariah address their contemporary situation, as one would expect, and are concerned that the Temple be rebuilt and the city-state of Judea be restored to limited sovereignty after the Babylonian destruction in 586 BCE.  However, if read carefully, both clearly understand that this restoration of Judah is only a preliminary, even symbolic step, to a coming great restoration of Judah and all Israel–including the so-called “Lost Tribes.”
Even though there is a Priest (Joshua), and a Governor (Zerubbabel) of the Davidic line, there is no anointing of the BRANCH figure of whom both Isaiah and Jeremiah had spoken. One way of putting this is to say that Haggai and Zechariah are working in the tall shadow of Jeremiah (see especially chapters 30-31), and they know, from his clear and powerful prophecies, that the final days have not come with this tiny little beachhead return of a portion of Judah to the land. But they do believe that this return of Judah is a “sign” of things to come, and a guarantee that the Plan of Yehovah, to fill the earth with justice and righteousness, through Abraham’s seed, is not to fall to the ground.
And that leads us to the curious and fascinating references to the 24th day of the 9th month–or Kislev 24 as that month came to be called.
The book of Haggai is sequential; it takes you through the last months of the year 520 BCE. It begins with the Rosh Chodesh of the 6th month (August), takes you through the 21st day of the 7th month (2:1), which is the last day of Sukkoth (October), and then into December–with the 24th day of the 9th month. Haggai’s third and fourth messages come on this very day. It is a short book, and if you skim it through you will see the building sequence.
The precise date Kislev 24 is mentioned four times in the second chapter, verses 10, 15, 18 and 20. Twice it is emphasized that “from this day forward I will bless you,” and twice Haggai gets a special Word from Yehovah, on this very day. You have to read the whole chapter to get the context, but the message is basically that Yehovah will “shake the heavens and the earth and all nations” overthrowing their power, after which He will anoint the chosen one of the line of David (symbolized in that day by Zerubbabel), and essentially make Jerusalem the new world capital. This entire prophetic agenda to which Haggai alludes is laid out in great detail in the pre-Exilic Prophets, see particularly Isaiah 2:1-4; Jeremiah 3:14-18; 23:5-8; Micah 5:2-5).
This message is addressed to the two “Messiahs,” the Priest and the “King” or Governor, Joshua and Zerubbabel, respectively (2:4-5). They become “signifiers” of things to come. They are not the final anointed ones, and Zechariah picks this up in his visions, especially chapters 4 and 6. These symbolic figures, as well as the promised presence of the Holy Spirit (see 2:5 and Zech 4:6), are the guaranteethat Yehovah will bring about these promises.
Notice, Zechariah begins getting his visions and messages in the 8th month of that same year (Zech 1:1), or mid-November. He has EIGHT night visions, they are all quite difficult to follow, but prophetically important in forecasting the redemptive future. There is much more detail in Zechariah, but the two, Haggai and Zechariah, should be read in tandem, as one explains the other.
Note carefully,  Kislev 24 is not specifically mentioned in Zechariah, but it is alluded to in chapter 4:8-10. It is the famous “day of small things,” that one might be led to “despise,” because after all, this tiny little remnant of Judah, beginning to lay the foundation of a nondescript temple, under the mighty thumb of the Persian empire, was hardly even worthy of the name of a city-state, much less a world kingdom, and yet had hopes and dreams and promises of world dominion–and the rulership of its promised “Messiahs.” These were the expectations that fueled the apocalyptic hopes of both the Dead Sea community and the followers of Jesus and John the Baptist.
Chapters 7-14 of Zechariah, which the author receives two years later, are quite different. They are straightforward and fairly plain, laying out, likely in some sequential order, both the preliminary events, and the detailed climax, of the “time of the end.”
So, what about Kislev 24?
In the time of Haggai and Zechariah, it was the day marked for the promise that the redemption would ultimately come about, “not by power, nor by might, but by the Spirit of Yehovah”–but in its time (Zech 4:6). But in the time of the Maccabees, when Syrian ruler Antiochus IV unleashed his great persecution against the Jews of Judea/Palestine, it was on Kislev 24 that the enemy was defeated and the Temple freed from its desecration. That is why the festival of Chanukah is celebrated beginning at sundown, at the end of Kislev 24. In other words, it is not so much Hanukkah that is important, as its marker date: Kislev 24. I seriously doubt that either the author of 1 Maccabees or the Maccabees themselves were attempting to correlate their victory over Antiochus by some obscure date in the Prophet Haggai. There is no indication that such is the case and nothing is said in the texts of the Maccabees about Kislev 24. But in looking back on things it does in fact turn out that the victory began, “from this day forward,” on Kislev 24.
Translate »